Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The CANON experiments – Tracking algal blooms by “going with the flow”

15.10.2010
In mid-September a small fleet of ships and robotic submersibles performed a novel experiment about 160 kilometers (100 miles) off the Central California coast.

The vessels spent most of their time circling around a floating robotic DNA lab, which drifted southward in the California Current.

This research, part of MBARI's CANON (Controlled, Agile, and Novel Observing Network) project, is all about "going with the flow"—tracking and studying how communities of microscopic marine organisms change as they are transported by ocean currents.

Conducting experiments in two very different settings

Led by MBARI biological oceanographer Francisco Chavez, during September, CANON researchers studied open-ocean water in the California Current, a meandering band of water that flows southeastward from Oregon to Northern Baja California. In October, a much larger cohort of researchers is studying the highly productive, but rapidly changing nearshore environment of Monterey Bay.

These two field experiments pose different challenges and opportunities for ocean researchers. Studying the offshore waters is challenging because humans and robotic vehicles must travel long distances and remain at sea for weeks at a time. Life in these offshore waters is often dominated by tiny organisms that are difficult to see even under a high-powered microscope, and often cannot be grown in the laboratory. These tiny organisms feed life in the ocean and have a strong influence on Earth's climate because they are so widespread.

Nearshore waters are more accessible to scientists and harbor dense populations of algae and other micro-organisms, as well as larger animals. However, this environment is affected by a web of complex interactions between the ocean, atmosphere, seafloor, land, runoff, and human activities. Because of these diverse influences, winds, currents, waves, and chemical and biological conditions often change rapidly, over periods of hours to days. This often makes it difficult for scientists to track and study ephemeral ocean features, such as algal blooms.

During both the nearshore and offshore experiments, CANON researchers simultaneously collected data on the physical and chemical properties of the ocean, along with detailed information on the algae, bacteria, and microscopic animals present. The researchers also measured the abundance of key organisms, determined how fast they were growing, and estimated how fast they were dying off or being consumed. Gathering all of this information simultaneously provides a more comprehensive picture of how the physical and chemical properties of the ocean affect the growth of entire communities of microscopic organisms.

Observing the microscopic life in moving water for more than a few hours is no easy feat. However, the CANON project builds on MBARI’s previous large-scale, multi-instrument, multi-institutional field programs, such as the Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN). In contrast to these previous experiments, however, the CANON experiments focus on biological as well as physical processes.

The September experiment: Drifting with the California Current

The first CANON field experiment began on September 9, 2010, when MBARI’s flagship research vessel, the Western Flyer, headed westward from Moss Landing. The ship first headed west until it was 350 miles offshore, collecting water samples along the way. After analyzing these seawater samples and comparing them with satellite images of sea-surface temperature, the researchers attempted to locate the ever-changing boundaries of the California Current.

After completing this lengthy transect, the Western Flyer headed back toward the eastern (shoreward) boundary of the California Current, about 160 kilometers (100 miles) from the coast. There it met up with the research vessel Zephyr, host ship for MBARI's autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs).

Once "on station" in the California Current, researchers on board the Western Flyer deployed a large, drifting buoy carrying a robotic DNA lab known as the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP). The Zephyr then deployed MBARI's upper-water-column AUV. At this point the field experiment began.

Drifting southward within the California Current, the ESP began automatically collecting water samples and analyzing the DNA of microscopic organisms within these samples. The Western Flyer followed the ESP as it drifted, allowing researchers to download data from the ESP and to collect water samples for later analysis on shore. Meanwhile, the AUV circled around the ESP, collecting detailed information about the physical and chemical properties of the water around it in real time.

The September CANON experiment involved a number of "firsts" for several research groups. For example, the ESP has been used in moored experiments for years, but this was the first time it collected data while drifting with the currents. In addition, the ESP was used not just to study genetic material, but to measure the amounts of important biological compounds generated by microscopic bacteria. This will help researchers understand how these bacteria are affecting the planktonic community and the rest of the food chain.

Similarly, programming MBARI's AUV to swim in circles (actually boxes) around a moving object (the drifting ESP) was a very complicated task. This provided a serious test for the AUV's control and scheduling system, known as T-REX.

The drift experiment showed how complex a problem CANON is tackling. Waters were moving in different directions near the surface and just below, changing even further with depth. Had only a few days of information been collected it might have been impossible to discern what was going on. After the third day, however, the experiment started to pay off and scientists started to better understand on the complexities of the physical and chemical properties of the water. Observations showed that the photosynthetic community was dominated by very small organisms, termed picoplankton, and they were floating in relatively high levels of nitrate. The nitrate, however, was not getting utilized, and the picoplankton seemed to be using ammonia as its nitrogen source. This type of activity is common in waters that are iron-limited. Information collected previously suggested that this phenomena might occur in this part of the world during autumn but the extent of the region, covering hundreds of square kilometers surprised the CANON scientists.

Combining diverse skills for a challenging project

This project involved engineers, marine operations staff, and researchers from MBARI and other institutions. The MBARI research team for the September experiment included physical biological oceanographers Francisco Chavez and John Ryan; marine biologists Alexandra Worden and Chris Scholin; and engineer Kanna Rajan.

Research organizations participating in the project include the University of Washington (genomics) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (genomics). The Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System (CeNCOOS) will help get information from these experiments out to policy makers, marine resource managers, and the public.

For more information on this story, please contact:

Judith Connor: (831) 775-1728, conn@mbari.org
Kim Fulton-Bennett: (831) 775-1835, kfb@mbari.org

Nancy Barr | MBARI
Further information:
http://www.mbari.org
http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2010/canon/canon_sept.html

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Waste in the water – New purification techniques for healthier aquatic ecosystems
24.07.2018 | Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen

nachricht Plenty of habitat for bears in Europe
24.07.2018 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

Im Focus: Lining up surprising behaviors of superconductor with one of the world's strongest magnets

Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur

What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...

Im Focus: World record: Fastest 3-D tomographic images at BESSY II

The quality of materials often depends on the manufacturing process. In casting and welding, for example, the rate at which melts solidify and the resulting microstructure of the alloy is important. With metallic foams as well, it depends on exactly how the foaming process takes place. To understand these processes fully requires fast sensing capability. The fastest 3D tomographic images to date have now been achieved at the BESSY II X-ray source operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin.

Dr. Francisco Garcia-Moreno and his team have designed a turntable that rotates ultra-stably about its axis at a constant rotational speed. This really depends...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

2018 Work Research Conference

25.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

'Building up' stretchable electronics to be as multipurpose as your smartphone

14.08.2018 | Information Technology

During HIV infection, antibody can block B cells from fighting pathogens

14.08.2018 | Life Sciences

First study on physical properties of giant cancer cells may inform new treatments

14.08.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>