Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New lignin 'lite' switchgrass boosts biofuel yield by more than one-third

15.02.2011
Bioethanol from new lines of native perennial prairie grass could become less costly because of plant engineering by The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation and fermentation research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

In a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers describe their transgenic version of switchgrass as one that produces about one-third more ethanol by fermentation than conventional switchgrass. This improved plant feedstock will be able to generate more biofuel per acre, benefiting not only the transportation sector but also the growers and farming community.

"Recalcitrance, or a plant's natural defenses against insects, fungus and the weather, is widely acknowledged as being the single biggest barrier to the production of biofuel and biochemicals from switchgrass and other lignocellulosic materials," said Jonathan Mielenz, a co-author and member of the Department of Energy lab's BioEnergy Science Center.

For years researchers have sought better ways to break down the plant's defense system, and while substantial progress has been reported, recalcitrance remains a significant challenge.

Despite this obstacle, switchgrass holds great promise as a bioenergy feedstock because it is a native perennial plant, grows with high yields and requires little nitrogen and water. These characteristics made it an attractive target for transgenic improvements.

To achieve their goal, a team led by Zeng Yu Wang of The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation in Ardmore, Okla., chose to "downregulate" - a process that involves decreasing a cellular component - the caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase, or COMT, gene - in the Alamo variety of switchgrass. This change decreased the plant's structural "glue," lignin, by about one-eighth. The scientists chose this gene based on encouraging results of lignin modification from previous Noble research conducted in alfalfa and other plant species.

What the team from the Noble Foundation ended up with, as discovered by a team led by Mielenz, is a switchgrass that is more easily converted to biofuels under milder conditions and with much lower costly additions during fermentation.

"The presence of lignin in plant cell walls interferes with the fermentation to produce biofuels," said Wang, who noted that enzymes are the single largest processing cost component for bioconversion of biomass after the biomass itself. "The transgenic lines require lower temperature preprocessing and only one-quarter to one-third the level of enzymes for equivalent ethanol fermentation compared to the unmodified switchgrass. This significantly lowers the cost of biofuels and biochemicals from this switchgrass."

The paper, titled "Genetic manipulation of lignin reduces recalcitrance and improves ethanol production from switchgrass," will be published online this week. Other authors are Chunxiang Fu, Xirong Xiao, Yaxin Ge, Fang Chen, Joseph Bouton, and Richard Dixon of The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Choo Hamilton and Miguel Rodriguez of ORNL, and Marc Foston and Art Ragauskas of Georgia Institute of Technology.

Supporting the research were the Department of Agriculture and the DOE Office of Science through ORNL's BioEnergy Science Center. UT-Battelle manages ORNL for DOE's Office of Science.

The BioEnergy Science Center is one of three DOE Bioenergy Research Centers established by the DOE's Office of Science in 2007. The centers support multidisciplinary, multi-institutional research teams pursuing the fundamental scientific breakthroughs needed to make production of cellulosic biofuels, or biofuels from nonfood plant fiber, cost-effective on a national scale. The centers are led, respectively, by ORNL, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of Wisconsin-Madison in partnership with Michigan State University.

The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation is a nonprofit organization conducting agricultural, forage improvement and plant biology research; assisting farmers and ranchers through educational and consultative agricultural programs; and providing grants to nonprofit charitable, educational and health organizations.

ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy's Office of Science.

Ron Walli | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ornl.gov
http://www.ornl.gov/info/press_releases/get_press_release.cfm?ReleaseNumber=mr20110214-00

More articles from Power and Electrical Engineering:

nachricht A storage battery for the entire world
04.06.2020 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

nachricht These flexible feet help robots walk faster
03.06.2020 | University of California - San Diego

All articles from Power and Electrical Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Restoring vision by gene therapy

Latest scientific findings give hope for people with incurable retinal degeneration

Humans rely dominantly on their eyesight. Losing vision means not being able to read, recognize faces or find objects. Macular degeneration is one of the major...

Im Focus: Small Protein, Big Impact

In meningococci, the RNA-binding protein ProQ plays a major role. Together with RNA molecules, it regulates processes that are important for pathogenic properties of the bacteria.

Meningococci are bacteria that can cause life-threatening meningitis and sepsis. These pathogens use a small protein with a large impact: The RNA-binding...

Im Focus: K-State study reveals asymmetry in spin directions of galaxies

Research also suggests the early universe could have been spinning

An analysis of more than 200,000 spiral galaxies has revealed unexpected links between spin directions of galaxies, and the structure formed by these links...

Im Focus: New measurement exacerbates old problem

Two prominent X-ray emission lines of highly charged iron have puzzled astrophysicists for decades: their measured and calculated brightness ratios always disagree. This hinders good determinations of plasma temperatures and densities. New, careful high-precision measurements, together with top-level calculations now exclude all hitherto proposed explanations for this discrepancy, and thus deepen the problem.

Hot astrophysical plasmas fill the intergalactic space, and brightly shine in stellar coronae, active galactic nuclei, and supernova remnants. They contain...

Im Focus: Biotechnology: Triggered by light, a novel way to switch on an enzyme

In living cells, enzymes drive biochemical metabolic processes enabling reactions to take place efficiently. It is this very ability which allows them to be used as catalysts in biotechnology, for example to create chemical products such as pharmaceutics. Researchers now identified an enzyme that, when illuminated with blue light, becomes catalytically active and initiates a reaction that was previously unknown in enzymatics. The study was published in "Nature Communications".

Enzymes: they are the central drivers for biochemical metabolic processes in every living cell, enabling reactions to take place efficiently. It is this very...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Dresden Nexus Conference 2020: Same Time, Virtual Format, Registration Opened

19.05.2020 | Event News

Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium AWK'21 will take place on June 10 and 11, 2021

07.04.2020 | Event News

International Coral Reef Symposium in Bremen Postponed by a Year

06.04.2020 | Event News

 
Latest News

New image of a cancer-related enzyme in action helps explain gene regulation

05.06.2020 | Life Sciences

Silicon 'neurons' may add a new dimension to computer processors

05.06.2020 | Physics and Astronomy

Protecting the Neuronal Architecture

05.06.2020 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>