Significant changes in one of the Earth's most important ecosystems are not only a symptom of climate change, but may fuel further warming, research suggests.
One of the biggest studies to date of key vegetation in the Arctic tundra provides strong evidence that dramatic changes in the region are being driven by climate warming.
Studies of tundra shrubs - which act as a barometer of the Arctic environment - show that they grow more when temperatures are warmer. Increased shrub growth, driven by recent and future warming in the Arctic, could cause more warming in tundra ecosystems and for the planet as a whole.
Taller shrubs prevent snow from reflecting heat from the sun back into space, warming the Earth's surface. They can also influence soil temperatures and thaw permafrost. Increased shrubs can change the cycling of nutrients and carbon in soil, affecting its decomposition and the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere. All these factors can contribute to climate warming both in the Arctic and on a global scale.
Shrub species in wet landscapes at mid-latitudes of the Arctic are the most sensitive to climate warming, the study found. These areas are vulnerable to change as they store large amounts of carbon in frozen soil, which could be released by warming and permafrost thaw.
An international team of scientists at 37 sites in nine countries, led by the University of Edinburgh, studied records of shrub growth spanning 60 years by analysing annual growth rings in the plant stems, to explore links between climate and vegetation change.
The study, published in Nature Climate Change, was funded by the International Arctic Science Committee. The findings will help improve models of future changes to tundra ecosystems and the impacts of these changes on the global climate.
Dr Isla Myers-Smith, of the University of Edinburgh's School of GeoSciences, who co-ordinated the study, said: "Arctic shrub growth in the tundra is one of the most significant examples on Earth of the effect that climate change is having on ecosystems. Our findings show there is a lot of variation across this landscape. Understanding this should help improve predictions of climate change impacts across the tundra."
Catriona Kelly | EurekAlert!
Global study of world's beaches shows threat to protected areas
19.07.2018 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
NSF-supported researchers to present new results on hurricanes and other extreme events
19.07.2018 | National Science Foundation
A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.
The low-cost process, developed by Purdue University researchers, combines tools already used in industry for manufacturing metals on a large scale, but uses...
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
20.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering
20.07.2018 | Information Technology
20.07.2018 | Materials Sciences