Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Texel paleothermometer for climate reconstruction perfected

25.10.2007
Spanish researcher Carme Huguet further refined the recently developed TEX 86 paleothermometer during her doctoral research at the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ). The thermometer measures seawater temperature dependent changes in the cell wall composition of archeabacteria.

Real thermometers have been available since the 17th century. For all periods before this, researchers depend on signs from nature. For such determinations, geochemists resort to molecules from microorganisms whose structure is well preserved in seabeds.

The TEX86 index has recently been developed at Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ). It is based on temperature-dependent changes in the lipid composition of the cell walls of certain types of archeabacteria. Their cell membranes are composed from special lipids of which the number of carbon rings in the molecule changes with the temperature of the surrounding seawater.

These organisms therefore adjust the degree of fluidity of their membranes to the prevailing conditions. Carme Huguet studied several aspects of this in greater detail and made significant improvements to the determination.

With a new detection method the analytical reproducibility of the TEX86 paleothermometer was brought to ±0.3°°C and the deviation in the results measured was reduced to 5% of the average. The TEX86 values for organic material out of the water column and from the uppermost layer of the floor sediment best match the temperature of the uppermost 100 m of seawater. However, the small cells of Crenarchaeota cannot sink to the floor by themselves; they are far too light for that.

This is, however, achieved more rapidly if the cells of Crenarchaeota are eaten, for example, by crustaceous zooplankton. Fortunately, the time spent in the gastrointestinal tract of the crustaceans does not harm the molecules. Once they have landed on the sea floor, the preservation of the original fat molecules takes place best in anaerobic sediments.

In modern, anaerobic sediments from a side branch of the Oslo fjord, the measured TEX86 values accurately reflected the average spring-autumn air temperature in Oslo. Temperature estimations of the transition from the last ice age to the present interglacial period were made using two cores drilled from the Arabian Sea. The TEX86 temperatures were compared with values from a British index; the Uk37. The index differences can be explained by differences in the growing season of the archeabacteria and algae that the Uk37 index is dependent on. The upwelling dynamic of the seawater in the Arabian Sea also exerts an influence. This dynamic is strongly dependent on the monsoon season in this area.

Carme Huguet's research makes it clear that climate reconstructions should always be based on comparisons of several types of parallel measurements to prevent unexpected scientific blunders. Determining the surface seawater temperatures in oceans and coastal waters is essential for the reconstruction of historic climate changes and changes in ocean currents. This information is, in turn, vital for perfecting current climate models.

This research was funded by NWO.

Sonja Knols | alfa
Further information:
http://www.nwo.nl/nwohome.nsf/pages/NWOA_77CJ2S_Eng

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht Artificial Glaciers in Response to Climate Change?
10.08.2018 | Universität Heidelberg

nachricht Planet at risk of heading towards irreversible “Hothouse Earth” state
07.08.2018 | Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

Im Focus: Lining up surprising behaviors of superconductor with one of the world's strongest magnets

Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur

What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...

Im Focus: World record: Fastest 3-D tomographic images at BESSY II

The quality of materials often depends on the manufacturing process. In casting and welding, for example, the rate at which melts solidify and the resulting microstructure of the alloy is important. With metallic foams as well, it depends on exactly how the foaming process takes place. To understand these processes fully requires fast sensing capability. The fastest 3D tomographic images to date have now been achieved at the BESSY II X-ray source operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin.

Dr. Francisco Garcia-Moreno and his team have designed a turntable that rotates ultra-stably about its axis at a constant rotational speed. This really depends...

Im Focus: A molecular switch may serve as new target point for cancer and diabetes therapies

If certain signaling cascades are misregulated, diseases like cancer, obesity and diabetes may occur. A mechanism recently discovered by scientists at the Leibniz- Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) in Berlin and at the University of Geneva has a crucial influence on such signaling cascades and may be an important key for the future development of therapies against these diseases. The results of the study have just been published in the prestigious scientific journal 'Molecular Cell'.

Cell growth and cell differentiation as well as the release and efficacy of hormones such as insulin depend on the presence of lipids. Lipids are small...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

2018 Work Research Conference

25.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

NRL's sun imaging telescopes fly on NASA Parker Solar Probe

13.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

UT-ORNL team makes first particle accelerator beam measurement in six dimensions

13.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

ASU astrophysicist helps discover that ultrahot planets have starlike atmospheres

13.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>