The study, which appears in the July 28 issue of the journal Science, involved researchers from the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, a part of The Earth Institute at Columbia University, and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, Germany. The depth of the core they examined corresponded to the period between 6,800 and 29,000 years before the present day--a span that includes the height of the last glacial period, and the transition to warm conditions similar to today.
The scientists collected particulate matter from the EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) ice core and measured the concentration of helium-3 (3He), a rare isotope that is plentiful in the sun's solar wind and is carried to Earth imbedded in cosmic dust particles measuring just a few thousandths of a millimeter in diameter. These dust particles carry their exotic helium load to the Earth's surface where they are preserved in the snow and ice of the polar ice caps, among other places.
Because ice cores from the polar caps provide a high-resolution temporal record of the past, the researchers were able to measure fine variations in the rate of cosmic dust accumulation between glacial and interglacial periods as well as the helium isotope characteristics of these rare particles. They found that the accumulation of cosmic dust did not change appreciably as the Earth emerged from the last great Ice Age and entered the current warm period, a fact that is likely to bolster the use of cosmic dust measuring techniques in future climate studies.
In addition, this was the first study to examine both cosmic and terrestrial dust using the same helium-isotope technique. As a result, they also found that the composition of mineral dust particles carried by wind from the southern continents to Antarctica changed considerably as the Earth's climate changed.
"The terrestrial dust coming down on Antarctica during the Ice Age obviously is not the same as that during warm periods," said Gisela Winckler, a Doherty associate research scientist at Lamont-Doherty and lead author on the study. "This may be due to the mineral dust originating from different regional sources or to changes in the process responsible for producing the dust."
Global study of world's beaches shows threat to protected areas
19.07.2018 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
NSF-supported researchers to present new results on hurricanes and other extreme events
19.07.2018 | National Science Foundation
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
19.07.2018 | Materials Sciences
19.07.2018 | Earth Sciences
19.07.2018 | Life Sciences