A research team from the IRD "Tropical Palaeo-environments and climatic variability" research unit and their American co-workers (1) have succeeded in retracing over a 23 000 year period the history of a coral reef of the Island of Urelapa, in Vanuatu. This fossil reef bears the record of the longest continuous growth – 17 000 years – ever studied by scientists (2). For the first time, researchers have at their disposal uninterrupted records of environmental data on the whole of the deglaciation period, which began around 20 000 years ago (3). A major finding is that the Urelapa reef changed growth strategy, in response to environmental changes which occurred during the post-glacial sea-level rise. More broadly, this research has brought new key information which contributes to a better understanding of the influence of climatic change on the coral reefs of the Pacific, which are the most complex ecosystems of the marine environment.
In the course of the last glacial maximum, around 20 000 years B.P., sea levels reached their lowest point, at 120 to 130 metres below the present level. The subsequent ice-cap melting induced a gradual rise of the oceans up to current levels. In the tropical regions, these large-amplitude fluctuations have contributed to the formation and growth of coral reefs.
IRD researchers at Noumea, in conjunction with scientists from three American universities (1), have just reconstructed the history of the oldest post-glacial reef ever studied in the Pacific which has grown under the influence of sea-level oscillations. This reef is situated at Urelapa, off the island of Espiritu Santo in the Vanuatu group in the South-West Pacific. It shows the longest recorded continuous growth, at 17 000 years, between 23 000 and 6 000 years B.P.. (2). The scientists thus have at their disposal environmental data (sea-levels, quantity of nutrients, temperatures, and so on) covering the entire period of deglaciation (3).
Bénédicte Robert | EurekAlert!
Huge stores of Arctic sea ice likely contributed to past climate cooling
21.02.2020 | University of Massachusetts Amherst
First research results on the "spectacular meteorite fall" of Flensburg
18.02.2020 | Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster
The operational speed of semiconductors in various electronic and optoelectronic devices is limited to several gigahertz (a billion oscillations per second). This constrains the upper limit of the operational speed of computing. Now researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg, Germany, and the Indian Institute of Technology in Bombay have explained how these processes can be sped up through the use of light waves and defected solid materials.
Light waves perform several hundred trillion oscillations per second. Hence, it is natural to envision employing light oscillations to drive the electronic...
Most natural and artificial surfaces are rough: metals and even glasses that appear smooth to the naked eye can look like jagged mountain ranges under the microscope. There is currently no uniform theory about the origin of this roughness despite it being observed on all scales, from the atomic to the tectonic. Scientists suspect that the rough surface is formed by irreversible plastic deformation that occurs in many processes of mechanical machining of components such as milling.
Prof. Dr. Lars Pastewka from the Simulation group at the Department of Microsystems Engineering at the University of Freiburg and his team have simulated such...
Investigation of the temperature dependence of the skyrmion Hall effect reveals further insights into possible new data storage devices
The joint research project of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) that had previously demonstrated...
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, recently completed a 5-year research project looking at how to make fibre optic communications systems more energy efficient. Among their proposals are smart, error-correcting data chip circuits, which they refined to be 10 times less energy consumptive. The project has yielded several scientific articles, in publications including Nature Communications.
Streaming films and music, scrolling through social media, and using cloud-based storage services are everyday activities now.
After helping develop a new approach for organic synthesis -- carbon-hydrogen functionalization -- scientists at Emory University are now showing how this approach may apply to drug discovery. Nature Catalysis published their most recent work -- a streamlined process for making a three-dimensional scaffold of keen interest to the pharmaceutical industry.
"Our tools open up whole new chemical space for potential drug targets," says Huw Davies, Emory professor of organic chemistry and senior author of the paper.
12.02.2020 | Event News
16.01.2020 | Event News
15.01.2020 | Event News
21.02.2020 | Medical Engineering
21.02.2020 | Health and Medicine
21.02.2020 | Physics and Astronomy