Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

To a Fault: The Bottom Line on Earthquakes

23.04.2008
The 5.2 earthquake that jolted area residents from their sleep on April 18 was a surprise to some, but not to researchers at the University of Cincinnati.

Although many people think that California “owns” all the earthquakes, Ohio also has its share of faults. Unlike another earthquake that woke people on another April 18, 102 years ago, this quake was fairly mild.

Two of UC’s earthquake experts have had extensive experiences with earthquakes. Attila Kilinc is a professor in the Department of Geology in the McMicken College of Arts & Sciences and G. A. Rassati is an assistant professor in the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department in UC’s College of Engineering. Rassati just returned from presenting several seminars in Europe on structural engineering.

Rassati was inspired to become a structural engineer specializing in earthquakes after experiencing one as a child in Italy.

“I was four years old when a strong earthquake struck my region in Italy,” says Rassati. “I have a very strong memory of my Dad trying to get me out of my little bed but he couldn’t get to me. Earthquakes have always interested me ever since.” Rassati has studied the structural and seismic effects on infrastructures, especially buildings.

"Unfortunately, the money is drying up for earthquake research. I'm afraid it's going to take another big one to draw attention to that," says Rassati. "And we're overdue."

Q&A with Attila Kilinc

Q: How common are earthquakes in the Midwest and was the severity of this tremor a first for this area?

A: Between 1776 and the present, 170 earthquakes have been charted in Ohio of magnitude 2.0 or greater. There have been at least 150 below magnitude 2.0, which averages out to approximately 1½ earthquakes a year. This latest was not a first, severity-wise: Several others measured inbetween 5.3 and 5.4; in 1980, for example, an earthquake in Sharpsburg, Ky., measured 5.2.

Q: Can anyone predict a “big one” ever hitting the Midwest?
A: We haven’t reached that level of sophistication yet. That would require predicting, simultaneously, location, timing and magnitude, Kilinc says, “and that’s virtually impossible.” He adds that seismologists in San Francisco, may, however, say the probability of a magnitude 6 earthquake within the next 30 years is 50 percent.
Q: What is Cincinnati’s proximity to the nearest fault line?
A: Cincinnati is not on or close to a fault line, Kilinc says. The nearest active one is the New Madrid Fault Line, about 350 miles west of Cincinnati. The last major (7.5 or higher) New Madrid-line earthquake was in December 1811 and January 1812. The fault line actually closest to Cincinnati, Kilinc adds, is just south of Lexington, Ky., but it’s not currently active.
Q: People have commented that their dog or cat woke them up during this Midwest-based earthquake. Others say they’ve heard all their lives that animal behavior – and even illnesses of people – can predict an earthquake. How far back in history does such thinking go and is there any validity in it?

A: The U.S. Geological Survey says that references to unusual animal behavior before a significant earthquake date to 373 BC in Greece. Kilinc says that for many years, Chinese scientists in particular watched what they called precursors, such as animal behavior and radon in water, in terms of earthquake prediction. None of the signs they were watching for, he adds, showed up in Tangshan, China, on July 28, 1976. That’s the day an estimated 247,000 people died in China’s deadliest earthquake of the 20th century. Its magnitude was 7.8.

Q: For those who have been through a major earthquake in California, this has to seem like barely a rumble. Yet, for many Midwesterners, an earthquake can literally rattle the nerves! How seriously should we take such an occurrence and is there any preparation one can make for an earthquake?

A: Residents of any area should always be prepared for earthquakes, tornados, hurricanes and so forth, making logical preparations that are similar no matter the disaster. For example, if there’s a strong earthquake or tornado and electricity is lost, many people’s first reaction is to strike a match so they can see — and can cause an explosion in a gas line. Also, people tend to want to rush out of an area affected by an earthquake. Kilinc, a former California resident who’s been through many temblors in the Bay Area, says that most people are killed “trying to get in or out,” so staying put is important. Little things matter, too, such as not putting dangerous chemicals on upper shelves in a laundry room.

Q: Finally: Another widely spread urban legend claims that California will someday fall into the ocean. While that’s not going to happen, how long could it take, as the Pacific Plate moves, before Los Angeles is close to San Francisco?

A: California, Kilinc says, “will never fall into the ocean” because of a boundary called a transform fault. San Francisco will shift south and Los Angeles, north — but it will take a “long, long time” for them to meet. The USGS says that tectonic forces “in this part of the world are driving the Pacific Plate in a north-northwesterly direction with respect to the North American plate at approximately 46 millimeters per year in the San Francisco Bay Area."

Wendy Hart Beckman | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uc.edu

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht New research calculates capacity of North American forests to sequester carbon
16.07.2018 | University of California - Santa Cruz

nachricht Scientists discover Earth's youngest banded iron formation in western China
12.07.2018 | University of Alberta

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Pollen taxi for bacteria

18.07.2018 | Life Sciences

Biological signalling processes in intelligent materials

18.07.2018 | Life Sciences

Study suggests buried Internet infrastructure at risk as sea levels rise

18.07.2018 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>