Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Keeping an Eye on the Universe

16.01.2012
Astronomers from the California Institute of Technology and the University of Arizona have released the largest data set ever collected that documents the brightening and dimming of stars and other celestial objects ­ 200 million in total.

The University of Arizona's Catalina Sky Survey keeps a watchful eye on asteroids that might cross the Earth's path. A byproduct of that effort is the largest database compiling the brightnesses of 200 million objects in the universe, including supernovae and stars torn up by super-massive black holes.

The night sky is filled with objects such as asteroids that dash across the sky and others ­ such as exploding stars and variable stars ­ that flash, dim, and brighten. Studying such phenomena can help astronomers better understand the evolution of stars, massive black holes in the centers of galaxies, and the structure of the Milky Way.

These types of objects also were essential for the recent discovery of dark energy ­ the mysterious energy that dominates the expansion of the universe ­ that earned last year's Nobel Prize.

Using images obtained by the UA's asteroid-hunting Catalina Sky Survey, the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, or CRTS, lets CalTech astronomers systematically scan the heavens for these dynamic objects, resulting in an unprecedented data set that will allow scientists worldwide to pursue new research.

"Exploring variable objects and transient phenomena like stellar explosions is one of the most vibrant and growing research areas in astrophysics," said S. George Djorgovski, professor of astronomy at Caltech and principal investigator on the CRTS. "In many cases, this yields unique information needed to understand these objects."

The new data set is based on observations taken with the 0.7-meter telescope on Mt. Bigelow in Arizona. The observations were part of the Catalina Sky Survey, a search for Near-Earth Objects, or NEOs ­ asteroids that may pose a threat to Earth ­ conducted by astronomers at the UA.

By repeatedly taking pictures of large swaths of the sky and comparing these images to previous ones, the CRTS is able to monitor the brightness of about half-billion objects, allowing it to search for those that dramatically brighten or dim. In this way, the CRTS team identified tens of thousands of variables, maximizing the science that can be gleaned from the original data.

The new data set contains the so-called brightness histories of a total of
200 million stars and other objects, incorporating more than 20 billion independent measurements.

"This set of objects is an order of magnitude larger than the largest previously available data sets of their kind," said Andrew Drake, a staff scientist at Caltech and lead author on a poster presented at the meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Austin on Jan. 12.

"It will enable many interesting studies by the entire astronomical community."

One of the unique features of the survey, Drake said, is that it emphasizes an open-data philosophy. "We discover transient events and publish them electronically in real time, so that anyone can follow them and make additional discoveries."

"It is a good example of scientific-data sharing and reuse," Djorgovski added. "We hope to set an example of how data-intensive science should be done in the 21st century."

The data set includes more than 1,000 exploding stars called supernovae, including many unusual and novel types, as well as hundreds of so-called cataclysmic variables, pairs of stars in which one spills matter onto another, called a white dwarf; tens of thousands of other variable stars; and dwarf novae, which are binary stars that dramatically change in brightness.

"We take hundreds of images every night from each of our telescopes as we search for hazardous asteroids," said Edward Beshore, principal investigator of the UA's asteroid-hunting CSS. "As far back as 2005, we were asking if these data could be useful to the community of astronomers.

We are delighted that we could forge this partnership. In my estimation, it has been a great success and is a superb example of finding ways to get greater value from taxpayers' investments in basic science."

The team said it soon plans to release additional data taken with a 1.5-meter telescope on Mt. Lemmon in Arizona and a 0.5-meter telescope in Siding Spring in Australia.

In addition to Djorgovski, Drake and Beshore, the team includes staff scientist Ashish Mahabal, computational scientist Matthew Graham, postdoctoral scholar Ciro Donalek and research scientist Roy Williams from Caltech.

Researchers from other institutions include Steve Larson, Andrea Boattini, Alex Gibbs, Al Grauer, Rik Hill and Richard Kowalski from the UA; Mauricio Catelan from Universidad Catholica in Chile; Eric Christensen from the Gemini Observatory in Hawaii; and Jose Prieto from Princeton University.

The Caltech research is supported by the National Science Foundation. The work done at the UA is supported by NASA.

LINKS:
Catalina Sky Survey: http://www.lpl.arizona.edu/css
Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey: http://crts.caltech.edu
CONTACTS:
Edward Beshore
Lunar and Planetary Laboratory and Steward Observatory The University of Arizona
520-621-4900
ebeshore@lpl.arizona.edu
Deborah Williams-Hedges
California Institute of Technology
debwms@caltech.edu
626-395-3227
Daniel Stolte
University Communications
The University of Arizona
520-626-4402
stolte@email.arizona.edu

Daniel Stolte | University of Arizona
Further information:
http://www.arizona.edu

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht New sensor could shake up earthquake response efforts
11.07.2019 | DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

nachricht NASA satellites find biggest seaweed bloom in the world
09.07.2019 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Megakaryocytes act as „bouncers“ restraining cell migration in the bone marrow

Scientists at the University Würzburg and University Hospital of Würzburg found that megakaryocytes act as “bouncers” and thus modulate bone marrow niche properties and cell migration dynamics. The study was published in July in the Journal “Haematologica”.

Hematopoiesis is the process of forming blood cells, which occurs predominantly in the bone marrow. The bone marrow produces all types of blood cells: red...

Im Focus: Artificial neural network resolves puzzles from condensed matter physics: Which is the perfect quantum theory?

For some phenomena in quantum many-body physics several competing theories exist. But which of them describes a quantum phenomenon best? A team of researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Harvard University in the United States has now successfully deployed artificial neural networks for image analysis of quantum systems.

Is that a dog or a cat? Such a classification is a prime example of machine learning: artificial neural networks can be trained to analyze images by looking...

Im Focus: Extremely hard yet metallically conductive: Bayreuth researchers develop novel material with high-tech prospects

An international research group led by scientists from the University of Bayreuth has produced a previously unknown material: Rhenium nitride pernitride. Thanks to combining properties that were previously considered incompatible, it looks set to become highly attractive for technological applications. Indeed, it is a super-hard metallic conductor that can withstand extremely high pressures like a diamond. A process now developed in Bayreuth opens up the possibility of producing rhenium nitride pernitride and other technologically interesting materials in sufficiently large quantity for their properties characterisation. The new findings are presented in "Nature Communications".

The possibility of finding a compound that was metallically conductive, super-hard, and ultra-incompressible was long considered unlikely in science. It was...

Im Focus: Modelling leads to the optimum size for platinum fuel cell catalysts: Activity of fuel cell catalysts doubled

An interdisciplinary research team at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has built platinum nanoparticles for catalysis in fuel cells: The new size-optimized catalysts are twice as good as the best process commercially available today.

Fuel cells may well replace batteries as the power source for electric cars. They consume hydrogen, a gas which could be produced for example using surplus...

Im Focus: The secret of mushroom colors

Mushrooms: Darker fruiting bodies in cold climates

The fly agaric with its red hat is perhaps the most evocative of the diverse and variously colored mushroom species. Hitherto, the purpose of these colors was...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on UV LED Technologies & Applications – ICULTA 2020 | Call for Abstracts

24.06.2019 | Event News

SEMANTiCS 2019 brings together industry leaders and data scientists in Karlsruhe

29.04.2019 | Event News

Revered mathematicians and computer scientists converge with 200 young researchers in Heidelberg!

17.04.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Flying Laptop satellite mission extended by two years - Successfully in orbit since July 14, 2017

16.07.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

New safer, inexpensive way to propel small satellites

16.07.2019 | Power and Electrical Engineering

UCI electrical engineering team develops 'beyond 5G' wireless transceiver

16.07.2019 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>