Wind-driven sand is understood to create ripples on a centimetre scale and dunes spanning tens of metres, but so-called megaripples of intermediate size have remained puzzling. A theory of aeolian sand sorting now fills the gap, suggesting that megaripples and similar structures seen on Mars might hold encrypted records of the local climate history.
Sandy deserts aren't smooth. Like water surfaces, they are decorated by tiny surface ripples and much larger waves, called dunes, excited by turbulent winds. Now, writing in Nature Physics, an international team of geomorphologists and physicists elucidates the physical mechanism creating a third type of sand wave, with no marine analogy.
These curious “megaripples” resemble large ripples but have long eluded a mechanistic understanding and clear phenomenological characterization. Not surprisingly—the authors say—as they are actually dwarf dunes.
The new perspective might be key to deciphering their morphological long-term memory of ambient soil and weather conditions, and provide interesting new directions for geomorphological analysis and remote sensing applications to related bedforms seen on Mars, for example.
The starting point of the study was a closer look at the conditions under which megaripples form. Turbulent winds not only create sand waves, they also sort grains by size. Fine grains advance quickly while coarser grains trail behind. For this reason, sand found in large dune fields—having been transported for miles by the wind—is typically composed of grains that are all about the same size.
In contrast, megaripples contain grains of all different sizes. Under erosive conditions, the fine grains leave while coarser grains, which are too heavy to be mobilized by the wind, gradually accumulate on the sand bed.
This sets off a special bimodal transport process, in which the impact of high flying fine grains helps the coarse grains to advance in tiny steps. Their drastically reduced hop length prompts a corresponding downsizing of the dunes they form.
As Marc Lämmel et al. now demonstrate, this new interpretation of megaripples as mini-dunes of coarse grains is supported not only by the known co-localization of megaripples and coarse grains. It is quantitatively corroborated by close morphological and dynamical similarities between megaripples and ordinary sand dunes, which had remained unnoticed because of the enormous difference in size.
An important implication of the new work is that megaripples are extraordinarily sensitive to fluctuations in grain-size and wind-strength. It explains why megaripples stop growing during periods of weak winds and quickly erode during storms. What has plagued systematic field studies in the past, now renders megaripples perfect candidates for retrodicting past weather and climate conditions.
How their morphology and grain composition encodes records of past sorting and growth phases reminds one of the growth rings in tree trunks. If judiciously interpreted, petrified or extraterrestrial megripples,
say, will reveal valuable information about the climate history.
While further research is needed to establish a reliable routine for deciphering the messages in the sand, nothing prevents you anymore from embarking on this endeavor yourself, equipped with spade and sieve, on your next beach or desert trip. Before you set off, here is the portable version of the theory for analyzing your data: megaripples are mini-dunes of mega-grains making mini-jumps.
Marc Lämmel, Anne Meiwald, Hezi Yizhaq, Haim Tsoar, Itzhak Katra, and
"Aeolian sand sorting and megaripple formation"
Nature Physics (2018) Advance Online Publication (AOP)
Prof. Dr. Klaus Kroy
Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leipzig University, Germany
Telefon: +49 341 97-32436
Susann Huster | Universität Leipzig
Salish seafloor mapping identifies earthquake and tsunami risks
25.04.2019 | Seismological Society of America
Geomagnetic jerks finally reproduced and explained
23.04.2019 | CNRS
Flexible, organic and printed electronics conquer everyday life. The forecasts for growth promise increasing markets and opportunities for the industry. In Europe, top institutions and companies are engaged in research and further development of these technologies for tomorrow's markets and applications. However, access by SMEs is difficult. The European project SmartEEs - Smart Emerging Electronics Servicing works on the establishment of a European innovation network, which supports both the access to competences as well as the support of the enterprises with the assumption of innovations and the progress up to the commercialization.
It surrounds us and almost unconsciously accompanies us through everyday life - printed electronics. It starts with smart labels or RFID tags in clothing, we...
The human eye is particularly sensitive to green, but less sensitive to blue and red. Chemists led by Hubert Huppertz at the University of Innsbruck have now developed a new red phosphor whose light is well perceived by the eye. This increases the light yield of white LEDs by around one sixth, which can significantly improve the energy efficiency of lighting systems.
Light emitting diodes or LEDs are only able to produce light of a certain colour. However, white light can be created using different colour mixing processes.
Researchers led by Francesca Ferlaino from the University of Innsbruck and the Austrian Academy of Sciences report in Physical Review X on the observation of supersolid behavior in dipolar quantum gases of erbium and dysprosium. In the dysprosium gas these properties are unprecedentedly long-lived. This sets the stage for future investigations into the nature of this exotic phase of matter.
Supersolidity is a paradoxical state where the matter is both crystallized and superfluid. Predicted 50 years ago, such a counter-intuitive phase, featuring...
A stellar flare 10 times more powerful than anything seen on our sun has burst from an ultracool star almost the same size as Jupiter
A localization phenomenon boosts the accuracy of solving quantum many-body problems with quantum computers which are otherwise challenging for conventional computers. This brings such digital quantum simulation within reach on quantum devices available today.
Quantum computers promise to solve certain computational problems exponentially faster than any classical machine. “A particularly promising application is the...
17.04.2019 | Event News
15.04.2019 | Event News
09.04.2019 | Event News
25.04.2019 | Materials Sciences
25.04.2019 | Earth Sciences
25.04.2019 | Life Sciences