One year after the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland brought European air traffic to a standstill its ash plume revealed a surprising scientific finding: Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz found that the ash plume contained not only the common volcanic gas sulfur dioxide, but also free chlorine radicals.
CARIBIC flight track from Frankfurt to the British Isles on May 16. The dots indicate air sampling locations. The colored regions depict the extent of the volcanic ash cloud as calculated using meteorological models, with red/yellow indicating high and purple low amounts of particles. Figure taken from Baker et al., 2011 (GRL).
Chlorine radicals are extremely reactive and even small amounts can have a profound impact on local atmospheric chemistry. The findings, which will be published in “Geophysical Research Letters“ give solid evidence of volcanic plume chlorine radical chemistry and allowed calculations of chlorine radical concentrations.
It has been known for some time that volcanic eruptions emit chlorine-containing gases, causing scientists to suspect that highly reactive chlorine radicals could also be present. However, sufficient experimental evidence proved elusive. That changed when researchers analyzed air collected in the ash cloud emitted by the Eyjafjallajökull volcano. During three special flights conducted by Lufthansa in spring 2010 using the CARIBIC atmospheric measurement container, researchers collected air samples which they brought back to their laboratory in Mainz for analysis. Among the compounds they looked for were hydrocarbons.
”Each volcano has its own character”, says Angela Baker, lead author of the paper. “We found that hydrocarbon concentrations were up to 70% lower inside the Eyjafjallajökull ash cloud than outside. Reaction with chlorine radicals was the only realistic explanation for the hydrocarbon losses. And further investigation confirmed that free chlorine radicals were the cause“. The scientists calculated concentrations of up to 66,000 chlorine atoms per cubic centimeter of air. While modest compared to concentrations of other gases, chlorine radicals are normally absent, and it does not take much of these very reactive atoms to have a noticeable impact on atmospheric chemistry.
Hydrocarbons like propane and butane can be found even in the cleanest and most remote parts of the lower atmosphere. Normally they are removed when they react with hydroxyl radicals, but they react many times faster with chlorine radicals. In doing so the chlorine reactions leave their specific ”signature“ on the mixture of hydrocarbons in the air. This signature can, in turn, be used to calculate how many chlorine radicals were present. The Max Planck scientists who calculated volcanic ash cloud chlorine radical concentrations for the first time anticipate that similar results will be found in plumes from other volcanoes, such as the currently erupting Grimsvötn. They also hope that their method will be used during future studies to identify and understand volcanic chlorine radical chemistry.About the CARIBIC measurement container
Outside air containing trace gases and aerosol particles is collected during the entire flight by a dedicated inlet probe underneath the aircraft’s hull and fed into the measurement equipment inside the container. The container was deployed during three special flights to probe parts of the volcanic plume of the Eyjafjallyjökull on Iceland that erupted in April and May 2010.
The equipment in the container detects over 50 different atmospheric species, including greenhouse gases, ozone, CFCs, water vapor and aerosols. The detailed dataset helps to locate sources of air pollution, to find out how air pollution is transported and how the atmosphere cleans itself. In this way, by using in-service passenger aircraft one can obtain a precise picture of the atmosphere’s composition and processes at reasonable cost. CARIBIC is enabled by Lufthansa and sponsored by Frankfurt Airport since 2009.
For further information about the measurement container and the project, please visit http://www.caribic-atmospheric.comAbout the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
Geophysical Research Letters, in press, 2011Contact:
Further reports about: > CARIBIC > CHEMISTRY > Cloud Computing > Earth's magnetic field > Eyjafjallajökull > Geophysical Research > Geophysical Research Letters > Iceland > Icelandic volcanoes > ash plume > atmospheric chemistry > chlorine > greenhouse gas > natural resource > volcanic > volcanic plume
Fast rising bedrock below West Antarctica reveals an extremely fluid Earth mantle
22.06.2018 | Technical University of Denmark
Polar ice may be softer than we thought
22.06.2018 | Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen
In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.
Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...
Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...
Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.
Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...
The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.
Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.
An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.
Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...
13.06.2018 | Event News
08.06.2018 | Event News
05.06.2018 | Event News
22.06.2018 | Materials Sciences
22.06.2018 | Earth Sciences
22.06.2018 | Life Sciences