Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A fortress of ice and snow

04.10.2019

MOSAiC expedition begins its ice drift on a floe at 85 degrees north and 137 degrees east

After only a few days of searching, experts from the MOSAiC expedition have now found a suitable ice floe, where they will set up the research camp for their one-year-long drift through the Arctic Ocean. Consequently, one of the most important milestones in the expedition has been reached ahead of schedule, and before the Polar Night falls.


RV Polarstern (operated by AWI) and RV Akademik Fedorov (operated by AARI)

Photo: Alfred-Wegener-Institut / Esther Horvath, CC-BY 4.0

Nevertheless, the search, which involved satellite imagery, two icebreakers, helicopter flights and scouting missions on the surface of the ice, was an enormous challenge – partly because, after the warm summer, there were very few sufficiently thick floes in the expedition’s start region.

The die is cast: The MOSAiC team has now selected the floe that will serve as the base of operations for their one-year-long ice drift around the North Pole with the German research icebreaker Polarstern.

This was preceded by an intensive search combining satellite imagery and helicopter flights over the target area in the Central Arctic, which were supported by the icebreaker Akademik Fedorov, operated by Russia’s Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI).

The participating researchers closely examined 16 floes that, on the basis of satellite imagery, were potentially large enough to accommodate the ice camp. They subsequently met on board Polarstern to compare their findings, ultimately agreeing that the ice drift should be prepared for on a floe measuring roughly 2.5 by 3.5 kilometres, and located at 85 degrees north and 137 degrees east. The floe, which Polarstern will allow herself to become frozen to, is currently drifting in alternating directions, at up to 10 kilometres per day.

“After a brief but intensive search, we’ve found our home for the months to come. The ice floe is characterised by an unusually stable area, which we are confident can serve as a good basis and point of departure for establishing a complex research camp. Other parts of the floe are typical of the new Arctic, which is home to thinner, less stable ice. And precisely this combination makes it very well suited to our scientific projects.

After carefully reviewing all relevant data, including that from our Russian partners, we came to the conclusion: it may not be the perfect floe, but it’s the best one in this part of the Arctic, and offers better working conditions than we could have expected after a warm Arctic summer,” explains MOSAiC expedition leader Markus Rex from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI).

“We’ll have to wait and see if it’s also stable enough to withstand the autumnal storms that are now brewing. But we’re prepared for all scenarios,” he adds.

On 28 September the first researchers from Polarstern set foot on the floe, which had long been a preferred candidate thanks to the promising analyses of the satellite data. On the radar images produced by the satellites, the dark, nearly oval floe stood out thanks to a large, bright region in its northern section. This clearly set it apart from all of the other potential floes, which were consistently dark in the radar images.

In the meantime, the experts have dubbed this region ‘the fortress’: made up of highly compressed, several-metre-thick ice, it offers higher stability and a solid basis for the ice camp, which will be erected far above it. In contrast, the darker regions, which are riddled with frozen-over meltwater pools and thin, porous and less stable ice, are typical representatives of the ice conditions in the new Arctic.

Here the ice thickness is ca. 30 centimetres near the freshly frozen-over pools, and between 60 and 150 centimetres in the older ice between them, although here, too, the bottommost 30 to 40 centimetres of the ice are extremely porous and less stable.

The researchers were unable to determine the floe’s makeup using satellite imagery alone; it took several days and nights of intensive work on the floe itself to gather the requisite data for making a sound choice. In this context, they used an electromagnetic sensor, which they hauled over the ice on foot or with a Skidoo, to map the ice thickness. Ice core samples also yielded data to help assess the ice’s structure.

Working in the dark, and in unfamiliar territory, posed a serious challenge. These efforts were coordinated and monitored with infrared cameras from Polarstern’s bridge. Further, members of the expedition’s polar bear patrol accompanied the researchers on the ice to ensure their safety.

In a final step, a helicopter-mounted laser scanner was used to create a three-dimensional model of the floe’s surface. This map, created during the scouting phase, will help the experts plan the next step: setting up the ice camp. Time won’t be on their side: starting today, the sun will no longer rise over the horizon, and there will only be a few more days with partial light at noon.

The MOSAiC expedition, spearheaded by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) entails a number of unprecedented challenges. The project has an overall budget of ca. 140 million euros. In the course of the one-year-long drift, ca. 300 experts hailing from 17 countries will be on board. Their common goal: to investigate for the first time the entire climate system in the Central Arctic. To do so, they will gather data on five major aspects – Atmosphere, Sea Ice, Ocean, Ecosystem and Biogeochemistry – in an effort to better understand the interactions that shape the Arctic climate and life in the Arctic Ocean.

You can find the latest news directly from the Arctic on the MOSAiC channels on Twitter (@MOSAiCArctic) and Instagram (@mosaic_expedition) under the hashtags #MOSAiCexpedition, #Arctic and #icedrift.

For further information on the expedition, please visit: www.mosaic-expedition.org 

Or you can use the MOSAiC web app to follow Polarstern’s drift route live: follow.mosaic-expedition.org.

Notes to Editors:

Printable images are available in the online version of this press release: https://www.awi.de/en/about-us/service/press/press-release/a-fortress-of-ice-and...

Your contact person in the Communications Dept. of the Alfred Wegener Institute is Dr Folke Mehrtens, tel. +49 (0)471 4831-2007 (e-mail: media(at)awi.de).

The Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) conducts research in the Arctic, Antarctic and oceans of the high and mid-latitudes. It coordinates polar research in Germany and provides major infrastructure to the international scientific community, such as the research icebreaker Polarstern and stations in the Arctic and Antarctica. The Alfred Wegener Institute is one of the 19 research centres of the Helmholtz Association, the largest scientific organisation in Germany.

Ralf Röchert | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht Shrinking of Greenland's glaciers began accelerating in 2000, research finds
12.12.2019 | Ohio State University

nachricht One-third of recent global methane increase comes from tropical Africa
11.12.2019 | European Geosciences Union

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Cheers! Maxwell's electromagnetism extended to smaller scales

More than one hundred and fifty years have passed since the publication of James Clerk Maxwell's "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" (1865). What would our lives be without this publication?

It is difficult to imagine, as this treatise revolutionized our fundamental understanding of electric fields, magnetic fields, and light. The twenty original...

Im Focus: Highly charged ion paves the way towards new physics

In a joint experimental and theoretical work performed at the Heidelberg Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, an international team of physicists detected for the first time an orbital crossing in the highly charged ion Pr⁹⁺. Optical spectra were recorded employing an electron beam ion trap and analysed with the aid of atomic structure calculations. A proposed nHz-wide transition has been identified and its energy was determined with high precision. Theory predicts a very high sensitivity to new physics and extremely low susceptibility to external perturbations for this “clock line” making it a unique candidate for proposed precision studies.

Laser spectroscopy of neutral atoms and singly charged ions has reached astonishing precision by merit of a chain of technological advances during the past...

Im Focus: Ultrafast stimulated emission microscopy of single nanocrystals in Science

The ability to investigate the dynamics of single particle at the nano-scale and femtosecond level remained an unfathomed dream for years. It was not until the dawn of the 21st century that nanotechnology and femtoscience gradually merged together and the first ultrafast microscopy of individual quantum dots (QDs) and molecules was accomplished.

Ultrafast microscopy studies entirely rely on detecting nanoparticles or single molecules with luminescence techniques, which require efficient emitters to...

Im Focus: How to induce magnetism in graphene

Graphene, a two-dimensional structure made of carbon, is a material with excellent mechanical, electronic and optical properties. However, it did not seem suitable for magnetic applications. Together with international partners, Empa researchers have now succeeded in synthesizing a unique nanographene predicted in the 1970s, which conclusively demonstrates that carbon in very specific forms has magnetic properties that could permit future spintronic applications. The results have just been published in the renowned journal Nature Nanotechnology.

Depending on the shape and orientation of their edges, graphene nanostructures (also known as nanographenes) can have very different properties – for example,...

Im Focus: Electronic map reveals 'rules of the road' in superconductor

Band structure map exposes iron selenide's enigmatic electronic signature

Using a clever technique that causes unruly crystals of iron selenide to snap into alignment, Rice University physicists have drawn a detailed map that reveals...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

The Future of Work

03.12.2019 | Event News

First International Conference on Agrophotovoltaics in August 2020

15.11.2019 | Event News

Laser Symposium on Electromobility in Aachen: trends for the mobility revolution

15.11.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Weizmann physicists image electrons flowing like water

12.12.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

Revealing the physics of the Sun with Parker Solar Probe

12.12.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

New technique to determine protein structures may solve biomedical puzzles

12.12.2019 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>