In this study the possibilities of the North American oak (Quercus rubra L.) as an afforestation alternative in the Basque Country Autonomous Community were investigated. The aim was to expand the range of possibilities in forestry production, avoiding monospecific plantations but, at the same time, meeting the needs of the current economy on the basis of sustainable development.
The study centred on 6 plantations of various ages in Bizkaia, firstly studying the wealth of epigeous fungi (based on sporocarps) as well as of hypogeous fungi (as ectomycorrhizals). Over a three-year period of sampling, 111 high-value species of macromycetes were studied; being grouped in 7 orders (Agaricales 60%, Russulas 18%, Boletals 14%, Polyporals 4%, Pezizales 2%, Cantharelles 1% and Phalalles 1%). The mature plantations, apart from showing a greater specific wealth, have proved to be more homogenous amongst each other than the non-mature ones. As regards ectomycorrhizals, 90 morphotypes have been described: 6 of these were identified at a species level; 1 was ascribed to a hitherto unknown morphotype and 7 to a genus. As regards the number of morphotypes, no differences were observed between mature and non-mature plantations. Winter turned out to be the season with the greatest number of morphotypes and of ectomycorrhizals types, followed by the autumn.
Also, the infective potential of the soils of the plantations was evaluated and it was observed that plantlings of 1 or 2 saps can be mycorrhized by the inoculum present in both mature and non-mature plantations.
Garazi Andonegi | alfa
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For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
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