Bone splinters from land animals (left) and from molasses shreds (right) in polarised light in the microscope (200x magnif.). Clearly visible the characteristic "lacunes"
Fotos: R. Modi, University of Hohenheim
Soil adhering tuber crops
Fotos: E. Schnug, FAL Braunschweig
Results of an experts round table "decomposition behaviour of animal residues in soil" at the Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Braunschweig, Germany.
As a result of the BSE-crisis, any feed for livestock must be "free" of anything of animal origin. This EU-decree lasts until 2006 and should prevent "MBM" (Meat Bone Meal) from reaching the feed trough. MBM means the heated, dried and ground remains of animal slaughter waste. In themselves these amount to about a third of total animal slaughter waste, which has to be disposed of, and also includes blood, feathers and other components of animal bodies which are not usually included in feedstuffs. But which, for hygiene reasons, still need to be disposed of. MBM can still be used as a fertiliser, but only MBM of category III, which has to be produced out of non-commercialised or non-marketable material that is classed as "fit for human consumption".
Checks are made for bone fragments and other animal components, like muscle fibres, hair or feathers in feedstuff samples. These microscopic tests check to identify bones by their characteristic surface patterns, so called "lacuna" (picture 1). If only one tiny identifiable bone splinter is found in a feedstuff, an unauthorised admixture of animal components will be assumed and the whole part will have to be destroyed ("zero tolerance"). This happened on 23rd November 2004 in Ireland, where the authorities blocked the import of 1.645 tons of German feedstuff derived from sugar beet pulp after finding bone fragments. In the immediate aftermath caused by the RASFF (Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed) similar samples were scrutinised in Germany and bone fragments were found "not always but more and more often".
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For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...
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