Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) losses from tile drains are an underquantified portion of the terrestrial carbon cycle. This is particularly important in the eastern corn belt where tile drainage dominates the agricultural landscape.
Specific land management practices, such as manure application, can play a large role in the export of DOC as soluble organic carbon is applied to or injected into the soil surface. As animal agriculture intensifies in the upper Midwest, measuring DOC exported through tile drains is important when evaluating carbon budgets and carbon sequestration potential.
Scientists at Purdue University have investigated the impacts of manure application, crop rotation, and nitrogen application rate on DOC losses from tile drains. Research was conducted over a six-year span (1998-2004) at Purdue University’s Water Quality Field Station, which was designed specifically to measure drainflow and solute losses from agricultural practices. Forty-eight drainage lysimeters were established at the field site in 1992. Twelve field treatments included a restored prairie grass, continuous corn rotations and corn–soybean rotations fertilized at three nitrogen rates, and continuous corn rotations fertilized with lagooned swine effluent applied in the spring or fall of each year. The study was funded by the USDA through Consortium for Agricultural Soils Mitigation of Greenhouses program and through the CSREES-NRI Watershed Processes and Water Resources Grant; the results were published in the May issue of the Journal of Environmental Quality.
The study determined that annual losses of DOC were not affected by any crop management practice. However, when drainage-inducing rainfall occurred with one month of manure application, the monthly DOC concentration of the manured plot was greater than that of non-manured plots. Overall, drainage hydrology was determined to be the largest sole driver of DOC loss. Greater daily drainflows were associated with higher DOC concentrations compared to lower daily drainflows. This indicates that larger storms effectively “flush” DOC from the soil systems.
Dr. Matt Ruark, now an Assistant Professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, stated, “Understanding the concentrations and amounts of DOC contributed to surface waters from tile drains is essential for evaluating the overall aquatic ecology of a watershed. This is of particular importance in the eastern corn belt, where up to 80% of the land in agricultural watersheds are tile drained.”
Further research is required to evaluate the fate of tile drainage–exported DOC once it enters the surface water system. The effect of manure management on the availability of DOC leached into subsurface soil is currently being investigated. Ongoing research at the water quality field station is being conducted to quantify nutrient and contaminant losses in tile drains as a result of manure application and crop rotation.
The full article is available for no charge for 30 days following the date of this summary. View the abstract at http://jeq.scijournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/38/3/1205.
The Journal of Environmental Quality, http://jeq.scijournals.org is a peer-reviewed, international journal of environmental quality in natural and agricultural ecosystems published six times a year by the American Society of Agronomy (ASA), Crop Science Society of America (CSSA), and the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). The Journal of Environmental Quality covers various aspects of anthropogenic impacts on the environment, including terrestrial, atmospheric, and aquatic systems.
The Crop Science Society of America (CSSA), founded in 1955, is an international scientific society comprised of 6,000+ members with its headquarters in Madison, WI. Members advance the discipline of crop science by acquiring and disseminating information about crop breeding and genetics; crop physiology; crop ecology, management, and quality; seed physiology, production, and technology; turfgrass science; forage and grazinglands; genomics, molecular genetics, and biotechnology; and biomedical and enhanced plants.
CSSA fosters the transfer of knowledge through an array of programs and services, including publications, meetings, career services, and science policy initiatives.
Sara Uttech | Newswise Science News
Further reports about: > CSSA > Carbon > Organic carbon > Science TV > Soil > Water Snake > agricultural landscape > agricultural watersheds > aquatic ecology > contaminant losses > crop > environmental quality > environmental risk > molecular genetic > nitrogen rates > rainfall > rate of nitrogen application > surface water
Trees and climate change: Faster growth, lighter wood
14.08.2018 | Technische Universität München
Animals and fungi enhance the performance of forests
01.08.2018 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig
New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference
Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
25.07.2018 | Event News
17.08.2018 | Materials Sciences
17.08.2018 | Information Technology
17.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy