Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

No place like elsewhere for the lodgepole pine

05.02.2014
Thanks to its excellent growth, the Canadian lodgepole pine has become a popular feature of forestry in Northern Sweden.

Researchers from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences are now able to demonstrate that organisms in the Swedish soil most likely contribute to the success of this exotic tree species.


A Pinus contorta landscape in northern British Columbia, Canada, which is the general region where much of the Swedish P. contorta originated.

Photo: Michael Gundale

When the researchers studied the growth of the lodgepole pine in sterilized and unsterilized Swedish and Canadian soil samples, they discovered clear differences in growth: it grew better in soil inoculated with Swedish soil biota compared to Canadian soil biota.

These results improve our understanding of why some exotic tree species and invasive plants at times can function so well in new environments.

Plants are often moved away from their natural provenance, and sometimes they become stronger competitors in their new habitat. This may be welcomed by agriculture and forestry, while an introduced plant spreading uncontrollably in nature can become a major concern. The reason why plants sometimes function very differently in a new environment is a question that many researchers are currently focusing on.

Michael Gundale and his colleagues from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) have focused on what the organisms found in Swedish and Canadian soils mean for the growth of the lodgepole pine*. There is a multitude of life forms in soil, some of which may be harmful (such as diseases and herbivores), and some of which may be beneficial (such as mycorrhizal fungi). By conducting a series of experiments on young plants, the researchers have shown that the growth of the lodgepole pine is greatly affected by which organisms live in the soil.

A first greenhouse trial indicated that the plants grew much better in soil samples from the areas in northern Sweden where the lodgepole pine has been introduced, compared with the soil samples from its original habitat in Canadian British Columbia. When the experiment was repeated in soil samples that had been sterilised through gamma irradiation, the growth was no longer affected by the soil being Swedish or Canadian. It also turned out that sterilised soil (regardless of origin) inoculated with Canadian organisms showed stunted growth, while “Swedish inoculation” improved growth.

“We have therefore clear evidence that differences in soil organisms between Pinus contorta’s Canadian and Swedish ranges have a great impact on the trees growth,” says Michael Gundale. “One plausible explanation is that plants growing in Canadian soil are exposed to antagonistic microorganisms that are specialised to lodgepole pine, while the Swedish soil offers an enhanced mutualism with mycorrhizal fungi. But we have not yet had the opportunity to examine this.”

Earlier experiments have looked at why a certain species does better in a new environment than in its natural habitat. However, these experiments have often only looked at one or a few of the many factors that could contribute to such a success, and no statements can therefore be made in respect to the importance of various factors in relation to each other. What makes this SLU study unique is that the researchers have not only examined the importance of soil biota, but have also considered a number of other factors that could also affect growth differences between the countries; they used soil samples from several places in Sweden and Canada, collected seeds from several areas, tested different fertilisation levels and took into account chemical and physical variations in the soil. However, the importance of Swedish and Canadian soil biota for growth remained the same, regardless of how all of these other factors were altered.

“I would love to conduct an equivalent study on Swedish pines,” concludes Michael Gundale. “If it were to turn out that the Swedish pines (Pinus sylvestris) are equally stunted by the indigenous soil organisms, it would be interesting to examine which soil biota are responsible for it, and what could be done to protect the plants.”

* The lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) originates from western North America. In the north of Sweden, the lodgepole pine has been planted on hundreds of thousands of acres. This introduction started in the 1970s and, at the time, it was thought that a natural rejuvenation could only take place in connection with a fire - which would prevent an uncontrollable spread. This however has not proven to be entirely true.

The article
Interactions with soil biota shift from negative to positive when a tree species is moved outside its native range. New Phytologist (2014). (by Michael J. Gundale, Paul Kardol, Marie-Charlotte Nilsson, Urban Nilsson, Richard W. Lucas & David A. Wardle)

doi: 10.1111/nph.12699.

Further information:
Michael J. Gundale, Associate Professor, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden

+46 (0)90-786 84 27, Michael.Gundale@slu.se

Pressofficer David Stephansson; David.Stephansson@slu.se, +46-72 511 69 90

Press images may be published without charge in articles about these findings, please acknowledge the photographer.

David Stephansson | idw
Further information:
http://www.seksko.se/
http://www.vr.se

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Advance warning system via cell phone app: Avoiding extreme weather damage in agriculture
12.07.2018 | Leibniz-Zentrum für Agrarlandschaftsforschung (ZALF) e.V.

nachricht Fishy chemicals in farmed salmon
11.07.2018 | University of Pittsburgh

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Research finds new molecular structures in boron-based nanoclusters

13.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

Algae Have Land Genes

13.07.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>