Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Greenhouse Gas Calculator Connects Farming Practices with Carbon Credits

09.08.2010
Web-based tool helps farmers reduce greenhouse gas losses and gain economic advantage

Greenhouse gas markets, where invisible gases are traded, must seem like black boxes to most people. Farmers can make money on these markets, such as the Chicago Climate Exchange, by installing methane capture technologies in animal-based systems, no-till farming, establishing grasslands, and planting trees.

Farmers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders need to understand how to change farming practices to maximize their potential economic returns in these new markets.

To open the black box, researchers at the W.K. Kellogg Biological Station, including Claire P. McSwiney, Sven Bohm, Peter R. Grace, and G. Philip Robertson, developed the Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a simple web-based tool to help users make economically and environmentally sound decisions.

The first page of the calculator asks users to choose a county of interest from anywhere in the US. An input/output window allows them to choose which crops they will grow, yields, tillage practices, and nitrogen fertilizer rates. Default values based on localized USDA statistics are provided as a starting point.

Given the farming practices chosen, the calculator tells the user how much carbon was stored in the soil or lost to the atmosphere, nitrous oxide (a greenhouse gas 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide) lost from the soil in response to fertilizer application, carbon dioxide produced by tractors, and carbon dioxide produced in manufacturing the fertilizer.

In an article in the 2010 Journal of Natural Resources and Life Science Education, published by the American Society of Agronomy, the Crop Science Society of America, and the Soil Science Society of America, the authors used the calculator to demonstrate how tillage compares with no-till in a three-year rotation of corn, soybean, and wheat.

Whether tilled or untilled, corn years always had the largest greenhouse gas losses due to large fertilizer additions. Wheat requires less fertilizer and soybeans require none. No-till management reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 50% due to soil carbon storage.

In another comparison, the amount of fertilizer applied was changed from 134 to 101 kg. Such a reduction could be achieved without a yield penalty by more precisely applying fertilizers or by using new fertilizer recommendations. Excess nitrogen in soil is readily transformed to nitrous oxide. By simply reducing fertilizer applications, the cropping system reduced greenhouse gas emissions 12%.

In an Environmental Science class at Kalamazoo College, the authors used the calculator for an in-class exercise. Using the farming systems calculator allowed students to take control and make the management changes they had been discussing for weeks. By making the management decisions themselves and ‘seeing’ what happened to soil carbon, the connections between changes in farm practices and the potential for economic gain became much clearer.

Farmers and other agricultural professionals can use the program to participate in similar exercises. By comparing different cropping scenarios against one another, the practices with the most promise for mitigating atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations become readily apparent. Those not familiar with agriculture learn how certain farming practices can have a positive environmental impact.

The greenhouse gas calculator is available at http://www.kbs.msu.edu/ghgcalculator/.

The full article is available for no charge for 30 days following the date of this summary. View the abstract at http://www.jnrlse.org/issues/. After 30 days it will be available at the Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education website, www.jnrlse.org. Go to http://www.jnrlse.org/issues/ (Click on the Year, "View Article List," and scroll down to article abstract).

Today's educators are looking to the Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education, http://www.jnrlse.org, for the latest teaching techniques in the life sciences, natural resources, and agriculture. The journal is continuously updated online during the year and one hard copy is published in December by the American Society of Agronomy.

The American Society of Agronomy (ASA) www.agronomy.org, is a scientific society helping its 8,000+ members advance the disciplines and practices of agronomy by supporting professional growth and science policy initiatives, and by providing quality, research-based publications and a variety of member services.

Sara Uttech | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.agronomy.org

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Giving a chip about masa
18.07.2019 | American Society of Agronomy

nachricht Global farming trends threaten food security
11.07.2019 | Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First-ever visualizations of electrical gating effects on electronic structure

Scientists have visualised the electronic structure in a microelectronic device for the first time, opening up opportunities for finely-tuned high performance electronic devices.

Physicists from the University of Warwick and the University of Washington have developed a technique to measure the energy and momentum of electrons in...

Im Focus: Megakaryocytes act as „bouncers“ restraining cell migration in the bone marrow

Scientists at the University Würzburg and University Hospital of Würzburg found that megakaryocytes act as “bouncers” and thus modulate bone marrow niche properties and cell migration dynamics. The study was published in July in the Journal “Haematologica”.

Hematopoiesis is the process of forming blood cells, which occurs predominantly in the bone marrow. The bone marrow produces all types of blood cells: red...

Im Focus: Artificial neural network resolves puzzles from condensed matter physics: Which is the perfect quantum theory?

For some phenomena in quantum many-body physics several competing theories exist. But which of them describes a quantum phenomenon best? A team of researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Harvard University in the United States has now successfully deployed artificial neural networks for image analysis of quantum systems.

Is that a dog or a cat? Such a classification is a prime example of machine learning: artificial neural networks can be trained to analyze images by looking...

Im Focus: Extremely hard yet metallically conductive: Bayreuth researchers develop novel material with high-tech prospects

An international research group led by scientists from the University of Bayreuth has produced a previously unknown material: Rhenium nitride pernitride. Thanks to combining properties that were previously considered incompatible, it looks set to become highly attractive for technological applications. Indeed, it is a super-hard metallic conductor that can withstand extremely high pressures like a diamond. A process now developed in Bayreuth opens up the possibility of producing rhenium nitride pernitride and other technologically interesting materials in sufficiently large quantity for their properties characterisation. The new findings are presented in "Nature Communications".

The possibility of finding a compound that was metallically conductive, super-hard, and ultra-incompressible was long considered unlikely in science. It was...

Im Focus: Modelling leads to the optimum size for platinum fuel cell catalysts: Activity of fuel cell catalysts doubled

An interdisciplinary research team at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has built platinum nanoparticles for catalysis in fuel cells: The new size-optimized catalysts are twice as good as the best process commercially available today.

Fuel cells may well replace batteries as the power source for electric cars. They consume hydrogen, a gas which could be produced for example using surplus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on UV LED Technologies & Applications – ICULTA 2020 | Call for Abstracts

24.06.2019 | Event News

SEMANTiCS 2019 brings together industry leaders and data scientists in Karlsruhe

29.04.2019 | Event News

Revered mathematicians and computer scientists converge with 200 young researchers in Heidelberg!

17.04.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Genetic differences between strains of Epstein-Barr virus can alter its activity

18.07.2019 | Health and Medicine

Algae-killing viruses spur nutrient recycling in oceans

18.07.2019 | Life Sciences

Machine learning platform guides pancreatic cyst management in patients

18.07.2019 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>