Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

More grapes, less wrath: Hybrid antimicrobial protein protects grapevines from pathogen

22.02.2012
A team of researchers has found a way to ensure that your evening glass of wine will continue to be available, despite the potential attack of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), a bacterium that causes Pierce’s Disease and poses a significant threat to the California wine industry’s valuable grapevines.
Researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), University of California at Davis (UCD), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service have created specially engineered grapevines that produce a hybrid antimicrobial protein that can block Xf infection.

Their research is published in the current edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, “An engineered innate immune defense protects grapevines from Pierce’s disease,” by Abhaya M. Dandekar, et al. The article’s online tracking number is 2011-16027R in the PNAS Early Edition to be published the week of Feb. 20, 2012.

By helping the vine fight the microbe with specific proteins, the scientists envision vineyards requiring less reliance on chemicals as growers seek to fend off the bacterium and the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) insect that carries it. As the insect feeds on various plants, it distributes the microbe widely.

The key to the project’s success is the fact that early in an Xf infection, molecules on the outer membrane of the microbe interact with cells of the grapevine. By interfering with that interaction between microbe and vine, scientists can help the vines block the disease and go on to produce a healthy crop of grapes.

"One thing got us started: with almost any pathogen, the major problem is drug resistance,” said Goutam Gupta, the corresponding author of the PNAS paper. “We wanted the plant to clear itself of the pathogen before it is infected, much as the body’s immune system naturally recognizes a pathogen and takes action to defeat it.”

To make the effective protein, researchers fused two genes: one that encodes a protein to cut a specific molecule on the outer membrane of Xf, and another that triggers the bursting of the Xf bacterium’s outer wall, called lysis.

The team inserted the hybrid gene into grapevines and observed the plants’ response to Xf infection. “The hybrid protein apparently creates pores in the membrane of the Gram-negative bacterium, Xf,” said Gupta, thus allowing the plant to fight back the infection. Sap from the engineered plants successfully killed Xf in laboratory tests, and the whole plants did not exhibit symptoms of Pierce’s disease after exposure to the Xf bacterium.

The antimicrobial gene may also protect other economically important plants from Xf-related diseases, and a similar strategy may be effective against a broad range of pathogen-induced plant and human diseases, Gupta said. X. fastidiosa is implicated in oleander leaf scorch, phony peach disease, plum leaf scald, almond leaf scorch, Pierce's disease in grapes, and citrus X disease in Brazil.

Work on this project has been funded by the California Department of Food & Agriculture, the US Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, the LANL Center for Biosecurity Science, and the LANL Material Design Institute.

Image caption: Expression of a hybrid protein blocks Pierce’s Disease in grapevine. The hybrid protein (shown at the bottom right) creates pores in the membrane of the Gram-negative bacterium, Xf, that causes PD. Transgenic grapevine expressing the hybrid protein shows little or no leaf scorching as PD symptom upon Xf infection (top left) whereas the non-transgenic without the hybrid protein shows severe leaf scorching (top right).

About Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos National Laboratory, a multidisciplinary research institution engaged in strategic science on behalf of national security, is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, a team composed of Bechtel National, the University of California, The Babcock & Wilcox Company, and URS for the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.

Los Alamos enhances national security by ensuring the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile, developing technologies to reduce threats from weapons of mass destruction, and solving problems related to energy, environment, infrastructure, health, and global security concerns.

LANL news media contact: Nancy Ambrosiano, (505) 667-0471, nwa@lanl.gov

Nancy Ambrosiano | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.lanl.gov

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht New insight into why Pierce's disease is so deadly to grapevines
11.06.2018 | University of California - Davis

nachricht Where are Europe’s last primary forests?
29.05.2018 | Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Temperature-controlled fiber-optic light source with liquid core

In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.

Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...

Im Focus: Overdosing on Calcium

Nano crystals impact stem cell fate during bone formation

Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Graphene assembled film shows higher thermal conductivity than graphite film

22.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

Fast rising bedrock below West Antarctica reveals an extremely fluid Earth mantle

22.06.2018 | Earth Sciences

Zebrafish's near 360 degree UV-vision knocks stripes off Google Street View

22.06.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>