"We wanted to determine the energy concentration and digestibility of phosphorus in whey powder, in conventional whey permeate, and in low-ash whey permeate because these values had not been determined," said Hans H. Stein, a U of I professor of animal sciences.
Skim milk powder has been used to meet the requirement for lactose by weanling pigs, but it is costly and usually uneconomical to use in commercial production. Whey powder, a co-product of the cheese industry, contains lactose and protein and is more economical to use in weanling pig diets, he said.
"Some companies take the protein out of whey powder because they sell it for the human food market," Stein explained. "When they take the protein out, they are left with whey permeate, which contains mainly lactose and ash."
In their study, the scientists used conventional whey powder—66 percent lactose, 13.2 percent crude protein, and 15.8 percent ash—and two permeate products. One of the permeates was a conventional whey permeate that contained approximately 76 percent lactose and 9 percent ash. Most of the ash had been removed from the other permeate product, which was approximately 89 percent lactose and only 1.7 percent ash.
The concentration of metabolizable energy and the standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus were determined in all three ingredients using weanling pigs. Results indicated that the conventional whey permeate contains less metabolizable energy than whey powder (3,081 vs. 3,462 kcal per kg DM). However, the low-ash whey permeate contained 3,593 kcal metabolizable energy per kg DM.
"Removal of protein from whey powder resulted in a reduced concentration of metabolizable energy in the whey permeate. If ash is also removed, the resulting high-lactose, low-ash whey permeate has a concentration of metabolizable energy that is slightly greater than that in whey powder," Stein said.
The concentration of phosphorus in whey powder, conventional whey permeate, and low-ash whey permeate was 0.63, 0.57, and 0.10 percent, respectively, but the standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus was not different among the three ingredients (91.2, 93.1, and 91.8 percent, respectively).
"These data clearly indicate that phosphorus from all three ingredients is well digested by weanling pigs," he said.
Stein said that these results make it possible to include whey powder, whey permeate, or low-ash whey permeate in diets for weanling pigs that are formulated on the basis of metabolizable energy and the standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus.
"These data will provide the feed industry and swine producers with more options for including lactose in the diets," he said.
The study was published in a recent issue of the Journal of Animal Science. Co-authors are Jung Wook Lee of the U of I and Beob Kim of Konkuk University in Seoul, South Korea. Funding was provided by Arla Foods of Viby, Denmark.
Phyllis Picklesimer | EurekAlert!
Sustainable forest management contributes more to climate protection than forest wilderness
07.02.2020 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biogeochemie
Microscopic partners could help plants survive stressful environments
30.01.2020 | Washington State University
The operational speed of semiconductors in various electronic and optoelectronic devices is limited to several gigahertz (a billion oscillations per second). This constrains the upper limit of the operational speed of computing. Now researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg, Germany, and the Indian Institute of Technology in Bombay have explained how these processes can be sped up through the use of light waves and defected solid materials.
Light waves perform several hundred trillion oscillations per second. Hence, it is natural to envision employing light oscillations to drive the electronic...
Most natural and artificial surfaces are rough: metals and even glasses that appear smooth to the naked eye can look like jagged mountain ranges under the microscope. There is currently no uniform theory about the origin of this roughness despite it being observed on all scales, from the atomic to the tectonic. Scientists suspect that the rough surface is formed by irreversible plastic deformation that occurs in many processes of mechanical machining of components such as milling.
Prof. Dr. Lars Pastewka from the Simulation group at the Department of Microsystems Engineering at the University of Freiburg and his team have simulated such...
Investigation of the temperature dependence of the skyrmion Hall effect reveals further insights into possible new data storage devices
The joint research project of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) that had previously demonstrated...
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, recently completed a 5-year research project looking at how to make fibre optic communications systems more energy efficient. Among their proposals are smart, error-correcting data chip circuits, which they refined to be 10 times less energy consumptive. The project has yielded several scientific articles, in publications including Nature Communications.
Streaming films and music, scrolling through social media, and using cloud-based storage services are everyday activities now.
After helping develop a new approach for organic synthesis -- carbon-hydrogen functionalization -- scientists at Emory University are now showing how this approach may apply to drug discovery. Nature Catalysis published their most recent work -- a streamlined process for making a three-dimensional scaffold of keen interest to the pharmaceutical industry.
"Our tools open up whole new chemical space for potential drug targets," says Huw Davies, Emory professor of organic chemistry and senior author of the paper.
12.02.2020 | Event News
16.01.2020 | Event News
15.01.2020 | Event News
20.02.2020 | Physics and Astronomy
20.02.2020 | Physics and Astronomy
20.02.2020 | Power and Electrical Engineering