Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Blossom end rot plummets in Purdue-developed transgenic tomato

22.05.2012
The brown tissue that signals blossom end rot in tomatoes is a major problem for large producers and home gardeners, but a Purdue University researcher has unknowingly had the answer to significantly lowering occurrences of the disease sitting on a shelf for 20 years.
In the early 1990s, horticulture professor Avtar Handa developed a transgenic tomato with a thicker juice that yields 10 percent more tomato paste than parental, non-engineered tomatoes. He said large commercial producers were interested but weren't ready to bring a transgenic tomato on the market, especially with the regulatory approval process that was required. So the research findings were published and the seeds stored away.

About two years ago, researchers at the University of California-Davis asked Handa for seeds from this tomato line. They were particularly interested in Handa's observations about how the tomatoes stored calcium, as several fruit diseases are thought to be caused by calcium deficiency. In particular, blossom end rot results in dark, softened spots on the end of tomatoes.

"Calcium is difficult to move from the soil into the plant," Handa said. "It is a major problem in tomatoes and many other fruit crops."

Handa shared his seeds with Elizabeth Mitcham, a post-harvest pomologist, and Sergio Tonetto de Freitas, formerly a doctoral student and now a postdoctoral researcher, both at UC Davis. They found that Handa's tomato plants essentially allow more calcium to be free and mobile in tomato cells, significantly reducing the occurrence of blossom end rot. According to the findings, published in the early online version of The Plant Journal, about 80 percent of wild-type tomatoes will suffer from blossom end rot in conditions conducive to the disease. Under similar conditions, only 30 percent of Handa's transgenic tomatoes develop blossom end rot.

"It's a significant decrease - more than twofold," Mitcham said.

Non-engineered tomatoes produce high levels of an enzyme called pectin methylesterases, which creates free carboxylic acids in fruit cell walls. These acids bind calcium and immobilize it in the fruit, Handa said.
"If you have a lot of pectin methylesterase activity, much of the calcium in the cells becomes bound to the cell wall," Mitcham said. "That calcium is then unavailable to protect the cell membrane and prevent these physiological disorders."

Handa's strategy for producing thicker juices involved silencing pectin methylesterase production in a transgenic tomato, greatly reducing the binding sites for calcium within the fruit cell walls. That allowed the calcium to be used in other parts of the tomato's cells.

"Freed-up calcium from cell walls likely overcomes the underlying cause of blossom end rot," Handa said.

Mitcham will continue to study the mechanisms that cause blossom end rot in tomatoes, as well as how pectin methylesterases and calcium may play roles in other plant diseases thought to be caused by calcium deficiencies, including in apples, lettuce, peppers and watermelons.

Handa said this development, and the fact transgenic plants have become more common, might get tomato producers interested in the tomato genotype he developed more than 20 years ago.

"We're coming to a time when people are starting to use genetically modified crops," Handa said. "The technology is matured and dependable and ready to be used now."

The U.S. Department of Agriculture, a CAPES Foundation and Fulbright Program scholarship funded the research.

Writer: Brian Wallheimer, 765-496-2050, bwallhei@purdue.edu
Sources: Avtar Handa, 765-494-1339, ahanda@purdue.edu
Elizabeth Mitcham, 530-752-7512, ejmitcham@ucdavis.edu
Ag Communications: (765) 494-2722;
Keith Robinson, robins89@purdue.edu
Agriculture News Page

Brian Wallheimer | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.purdue.edu

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Trees and climate change: Faster growth, lighter wood
14.08.2018 | Technische Universität München

nachricht Animals and fungi enhance the performance of forests
01.08.2018 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

Im Focus: Lining up surprising behaviors of superconductor with one of the world's strongest magnets

Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur

What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

2018 Work Research Conference

25.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Staying in Shape

16.08.2018 | Life Sciences

Diving robots find Antarctic seas exhale surprising amounts of carbon dioxide in winter

16.08.2018 | Earth Sciences

Protein droplets keep neurons at the ready and immune system in balance

16.08.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>