Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researcher Creating Shape-Shifting Material Geared For Correcting Facial Defects

06.10.2014

A newly developed material that molds itself to fill gaps in bone while promoting bone growth could more effectively treat defects in the facial region, says a Texas A&M University researcher who is creating the shape-shifting material.

The research by Melissa Grunlan, associate professor in the university’s Department of Biomedical Engineering, is detailed in the scientific journal “Acta Biomaterialia.” Working with colleagues at Texas A&M and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Grunlan has created a polymer foam that is malleable after treating with warm saline, allowing it to precisely fill a bone defect before hardening into a porous, sponge-like scaffold that promotes new bone formation.


Texas A&M University

The polymer foam scaffold has interconnected pores that allow bone cells to migrate into the area and begin healing damaged tissue.

The team envisions the material as a treatment for cranio-maxillofacial bone defects – gaps in bone occurring in the head, face or jaw areas. These defects, which can dramatically alter a person’s appearance, can be caused by injuries, birth defects such as cleft palates or surgical procedures such as the removal of tumors, Grunlan says.

In order to repair these defects, the polymer foam developed by Grunlan her team acts as a scaffold, a temporary structure that supports the damaged area while promoting healing by allowing bone cells to migrate into the area and repair the damage tissue. Ultimately, the scaffold dissolves, leaving behind new bone tissue, she explains.

“Try as hard as we do to create artificial materials to replace damaged or diseased tissues, it is nearly impossible to match the properties of native, healthy tissue – and so the whole idea behind tissue engineering is that if we can restore native-like, healthy tissue, that will be better than any artificial replacement,” Grunlan said.

“A problem,” she adds, “is directing that process in these areas where there is a critical bone defect. In these types of instances where large gaps exist the body doesn’t have the ability to heal the defect with new bone tissue growth; we have to help it along, and that is what our material is designed to do.”

Key to Grunlan’s material is its malleability after brief exposure to warm saline (140 degrees Fahrenheit), allowing surgeons to easily mold the material to fill irregularly shaped gaps in bone. Once a defect is filled, the material cools to body temperature and resumes its stiff texture, locking itself in place, she says.

This self-fitting aspect of the material gives it a significant edge over autografting, the most common treatment for these types of bone defects, Grunlan notes. Autografting involves harvesting bone from elsewhere in the body, such as the hip, and then arduously shaping it to fit the bone defect.

In addition to its obvious limited availability, the bone harvested through autografting is very rigid, making it difficult to shape and resulting in a lack of contact between the graft and the surrounding tissue, Grunlan says. When this occurs, complications can arise. For example, a graft can inadvertently dissolve through a process known as graft resorption, leaving behind the defect, she says.

Another therapy involves filling the defect with bone putty, but that material can be brittle once it hardens, and it lacks the pores necessary for bone cells to move into the area and repair the tissue, Grunlan notes.

By tweaking the polymer scaffold through a chemical process that bonds individual molecular chains, Grunlan and her team overcame that issue and produced a sponge-like material with interconnected pores.

They also coated the material with a bioactive substance that helps lock it into place by inducing formation of a mineral that is found in bone, she adds. The coating, Grunlan explains, help osteoblasts – the cells that produce bone – to adhere and spread throughout the polymer scaffold. Think of it as a sort of “boost” to the material’s healing properties.

Thus far, the results have been promising; after only three days the coated material had grown about five times more osteoblasts than uncoated versions of the same material, Grunlan says. In addition, the osteoblasts present within the scaffold produced more of the proteins critical for new bone formation. The team plans to continue studying the material’s ability to heal cranio-maxillofacial bone defects by moving testing into preclinical and clinical studies.

Media contact: Melissa Grunlan, associate professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering, at (979) 845-2406 or via email: mgrunlan@tamu.edu, or Ryan A. Garcia at (979) 847-5833 or via email: ryan.garcia99@tamu.edu.

For more news about Texas A&M University, go to http://tamutimes.tamu.edu/

Follow us on Twitter at https://twitter.com/TAMU

Melissa Grunlan | newswise
Further information:
http://www.tamu.edu

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht In borophene, boundaries are no barrier
17.07.2018 | Rice University

nachricht Research finds new molecular structures in boron-based nanoclusters
13.07.2018 | Brown University

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Microscopic trampoline may help create networks of quantum computers

17.07.2018 | Information Technology

In borophene, boundaries are no barrier

17.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

The role of Sodium for the Enhancement of Solar Cells

17.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>