Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Existence of a new quasiparticle demonstrated

28.02.2017

Angulon theory can explain 20 years of observations -- fast and efficient method to understand molecular interactions with surrounding material

How do molecules rotate in a solvent? Answering this question is a complicated task since the molecular rotation is perturbed by a very large number of surrounding atoms. For a long time, large-scale computer simulations have been the main approach to model molecule-solvent interactions. However, they are extremely time consuming and sometimes completely infeasible.


This is an artist's impression of the angulon quasiparticle formed from a methane molecule in superfluid helium.

Credit: IST Austria

Now, Mikhail Lemeshko from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) has proven that angulons -- a certain type of quasiparticle he proposed two years ago - do in fact form when a molecule is immersed in superfluid helium. This offers a quick and simple description for rotation of molecules in solvents.

In physics, the concept of quasiparticles is used as a technique to simplify the description of many-particle systems. Namely, instead of modeling strong interactions between trillions of individual particles, one identifies building blocks of the system that are interacting with one another only weakly. These building blocks are called quasiparticles and might consist of groups of particles.

For example, to describe air bubbles rising up in water from first principles, one would need to solve an enormous set of equations describing the position and momentum of each water molecule. On the other hand, one could notice that the bubbles themselves can be treated as individual particles -- or quasiparticles -- which drastically simplifies the description of the system. As another example, consider a running horse engulfed in a cloud of dust.

One can think of it as a quasiparticle consisting of the horse itself and the dust cloud moving along with it. Understanding what is going on in terms of such a 'quasi-horse' is substantially easier compared to treating every dust grain, as well as the horse, separately in a complicated simulation.

The latter example is similar to what Mikhail Lemeshko did in his study. Instead of treating the rotating molecule and all the atoms of the surrounding material separately, he used angulons to look at the problem from a different perspective. Angulon quasiparticles, which form when a rotating object interacts with a surrounding environment, were predicted theoretically two years ago by Lemeshko and Schmidt. Until now, however, they were considered only theoretically and their actual existence was still to be demonstrated.

Lemeshko's study, which was published today in Physical Review Letters, is based on experimental data collected by several laboratories over the last two decades. All the experiments had one thing in common: molecules of different types were observed to rotate inside tiny droplets of superfluid helium. As Lemeshko has shown, independent of which molecule was studied, be it heavy or light species, methane, water, carbon dioxide or ammonia, the outcome of the angulon theory was always in good agreement with the measurements. This indicates that the angulon quasiparticles indeed form inside helium droplets.

"In our first study we proposed angulons as a possibility for describing rotation of molecules in solvents. Now we have provided strong evidence that angulons actually exist," says Lemeshko. This substantially simplifies existing many-particle theories and could lead to applications in molecular physics, theoretical chemistry, and even biology.

A first application of the angulon theory was already found by Enderalp Yakaboylu, a postdoc in Lemeshko's group. The authors predicted that even a medium that is non-polarizable can shield an immersed impurity from an external electromagnetic field. This effect, which seems to contradict intuition, is called "anomalous screening" and is caused by an exchange of angular momentum on quantum level. The discovery, which the authors also publish in Physical Review Letters, was made possible by describing the charged particle and the interacting surroundings as angulon quasiparticle. Future measurements will show if the prediction can be proven experimentally.

###

Mikhail Lemeshko joined IST Austria in 2014 after having spent three years as an independent postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University. His research group entitled "Theoretical Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics" currently includes three postdocs and one PhD student. The main focus of study is the physics of quantum impurities possessing orbital angular momentum. He was recently awarded a standalone grant by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) to continue his work on angulons. Enderalp Yakaboylu is a postdoc in IST Austria's ISTFELLOW program which is partially funded by the European Union.

Media Contact

Elisabeth Guggenberger
elisabeth.guggenberger@ist.ac.at
43-022-439-000-1199

 @istaustria

http://Www.ist.ac.at 

Elisabeth Guggenberger | EurekAlert!

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht Epoxy compound gets a graphene bump
14.11.2018 | Rice University

nachricht Automated adhesive film placement and stringer integration for aircraft manufacture
15.11.2018 | Fraunhofer IFAM

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: UNH scientists help provide first-ever views of elusive energy explosion

Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have captured a difficult-to-view singular event involving "magnetic reconnection"--the process by which sparse particles and energy around Earth collide producing a quick but mighty explosion--in the Earth's magnetotail, the magnetic environment that trails behind the planet.

Magnetic reconnection has remained a bit of a mystery to scientists. They know it exists and have documented the effects that the energy explosions can...

Im Focus: A Chip with Blood Vessels

Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way.

Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. Producing artificial tissue, however, permeated by fine blood vessels, is a much more...

Im Focus: A Leap Into Quantum Technology

Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.

In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...

Im Focus: Research icebreaker Polarstern begins the Antarctic season

What does it look like below the ice shelf of the calved massive iceberg A68?

On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.

Im Focus: Penn engineers develop ultrathin, ultralight 'nanocardboard'

When choosing materials to make something, trade-offs need to be made between a host of properties, such as thickness, stiffness and weight. Depending on the application in question, finding just the right balance is the difference between success and failure

Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated a new material they call "nanocardboard," an ultrathin equivalent of corrugated paper cardboard. A square...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

“3rd Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP 2018” Attracts International Experts and Users

09.11.2018 | Event News

On the brain’s ability to find the right direction

06.11.2018 | Event News

European Space Talks: Weltraumschrott – eine Gefahr für die Gesellschaft?

23.10.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Purdue cancer identity technology makes it easier to find a tumor's 'address'

16.11.2018 | Health and Medicine

Good preparation is half the digestion

16.11.2018 | Life Sciences

Microscope measures muscle weakness

16.11.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>