This finding, as well as many others, was derived from interviews of residents in the Chicago metropolitan area, with particular focus in two areas where neighborhood evacuations are likely due to large amounts of toxic materials that are transported nearby Logan Square and Blue Island, Ill. Logan Square is a predominantly Latino, low-income community with a high concentration of recent arrivals to this region from Mexico and Puerto Rico. By contrast, Blue Island is a mixed-race, predominantly low to middle income community on Chicago's south side.
Pamela Murray-Tuite, http://www.nvc.vt.edu/murraytu/ an assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering at Virginia Tech, led this study that she calls the first of its kind. "We took an integrated, interdisciplinary approach to evacuation study. This approach is absolutely critical to the development of transportation evacuation models, but in practice, it was virtually non-existent until our work," she said.
In the past, officials have "made overly optimistic evacuation time predictions that could have potentially devastating consequences," she added.
Murray-Tuite's study was unique because it integrated social science perspectives with transportation engineering. It used in-depth personal interviews to gather household decision-making data and to model household member interactions and decision-making when faced with an immediate, no-notice evacuation. The study also estimated the resulting effects on traffic and evacuation times, and considered the relocation of school children to sites within the communities to facilitate pick up.
Working with Murray Tuite was Lisa Schweitzer of the University of Southern California, an associate professor in its school of policy, planning and development. She has expertise in sustainable transportation and hazardous materials in urban environments. The late Janice Metzger, a senior program manager at the Center for Neighborhood Technology (CNT) in Chicago, also served as a co-principal investigator on the NSF project. Henry Sullivan of this center finished the study.
Schweitzer described one of the influencing factors their team found regarding emergency evacuations was that in the Logan Square area nearly 60 percent of the immigrant mothers were stay-at-home, whereas U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics has put the average percentage of mothers outside of the paid workforce at a little less than 10 percent. Anecdotal evidence suggested that the U.S. recession was responsible for this much higher than average number.
"Foreign born women who are engaged in traditional care giving roles may be exceptionally vulnerable to events that disrupt their neighborhood. However, native-born women, though far more mobile due to their higher car usage and roles outside the home, also have dimensions upon which they may be more vulnerable," since they retain the primary role for securing their children, the researchers wrote in their report to NSF.
Some 300 households participated in the research project. Approximately 50 questions were posed in each of the interviews. Personal information about such issues as education level and income were answered separately and included in an anonymous sealed envelope.
The interviews covered topics from everyday commuting habits, child-transportation both before and after school, to thoughts about how they might handle short to long-term evacuations.
Murray-Tuite presented some initial findings at the Fourth International Conference on Women's Issues in Transportation. Her doctoral student Sirui Liu of Falls Church, Va., presented the relocation model at the 90th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board.
She and her colleagues are also publishing several technical papers on emergency evacuations that include emphasis on scenarios such as child pick-up from another location, as well as one on how the effect of spouses attempting to find each other impacts a hasty exit from a community.
"We know from our study that everyday travel behavior and neighborhood environments shape what people believe they would do when they envision disaster conditions," Murray-Tuite said. "We now have a series of discrete choice analyses that we are working on to uncover systematic differences in everyday travel behavior in men and women, parents and non-parents, and how those systematic differences in everyday travel behavior affect how individuals view their disaster resources."
Lynn Nystrom | EurekAlert!
Antarctic Ice Sheet mass loss has increased
14.06.2018 | Technische Universität Dresden
WAKE-UP provides new treatment option for stroke patients | International study led by UKE
17.05.2018 | Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf
In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.
Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...
Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...
Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.
Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...
The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.
Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.
An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.
Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...
13.06.2018 | Event News
08.06.2018 | Event News
05.06.2018 | Event News
22.06.2018 | Materials Sciences
22.06.2018 | Earth Sciences
22.06.2018 | Life Sciences