Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study Shows How the Brain Forms Habits

26.10.2010
Most people have habits that guide them through daily life — for example, their path to work in the morning, or their bedtime routine.

The brain patterns that drive this behavior are not well-understood, but a new study from MIT’s McGovern Institute for Brain Research shows that habit formation appears to be an innate ability that is fine-tuned by experience — specifically, the costs and rewards of certain choices.

Neuroscientists led by Institute Professor Ann Graybiel found that untrained monkeys performing a simple visual scanning task gradually developed efficient patterns that allowed them to minimize the time it took to receive their reward.

The task was designed to mimic natural scenarios — a nearly infinite number of choices for the monkeys to make and an unpredictable reward structure. “We wanted to create an environment that would be similar to the world we walk around in every day — an environment where there are lots of choices the animal can make,” says Theresa Desrochers, an MIT graduate student and lead author of a paper describing the work in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the week of Oct. 25.

The findings not only help reveal how the brain forms habits, but also could shed light on neurological disorders where amplified habit-formation results in highly repetitive behavior, such as Tourette’s syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia, says Graybiel.

Graybiel and Desrochers took an unusual approach to their study. In most behavioral studies of monkeys, the researchers first train the animals to perform a task, then begin experiments. In this case, Graybiel and Desrochers wanted to see if the monkeys could learn a simple visual free-scanning task with no training at all.

The researchers measured the monkeys’ eye movements and brain activity as they looked at a grid of either four or nine dots. In each trial, after a period of time when the monkey just looked around, a different dot was randomly chosen to be “baited,” meaning that the monkey succeeded in the trial when its gaze landed on that dot. After a successful trial ended, the monkey received a food reward.

While the task itself is simple, it is capable of generating a rich variety of behavior, due to the number of choices available to the animals. The monkeys performed such trials about 1,000 times a day, and over several months, they developed ways to look at all of the different dots in sequences that were more and more cost-effective — meaning that they reached the target dot faster.

The changes were gradual: The animals would use one pattern for five to 10 days, then shift to a slightly different pattern. When looking at the entire mass of data, the researchers couldn’t tell what was driving these changes. However, a trial-by-trial analysis revealed that very small variations in the scanning patterns could reduce the overall time to receive the reward, which would then reinforce that behavior and lead the monkey to adopt the new pattern.

“The upshot was that tiny little changes in cost — how far they moved the eyes — seemed to be driving these shifts until they did it as optimally as they could, despite the fact that they had never been instructed,” says Graybiel.

This suggests that primates have an “inborn tendency to maximize reward and minimize cost,” says Graybiel. She and Desrochers believe the same kind of phenomenon, known as reinforcement learning, may also guide human habit formation.

“When you drive to work, it’s never going to take exactly the same amount of time. You might try one different street to avoid a stoplight, or some other subtle variation. At some point, you may completely shift,” says Desrochers.

Desrochers and Graybiel plan to design studies that will test whether humans show the same kind of habit-forming behavior in an eye-scanning task similar to the one the monkeys learned. They also hope to discover which parts of the brain control habit formation. They believe that the basal ganglia, which play a role in learning, and the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in planning, are likely candidates.

Funding: National Eye Institute Grant, the Office of Naval Research Grant, National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship, Friends of the McGovern Fellowship and a Sloan Research Fellowship

Source: “Optimal habits can develop spontaneously through sensitivity to local cost” by, Theresa M. Desrochers, Dezhe Z. Jin, Noah D. Goodman, and Ann M. Graybiel. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 25 October, 2010.

Julie Pryor | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.mit.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Study relating to materials testing Detecting damages in non-magnetic steel through magnetism
23.07.2018 | Technische Universität Kaiserslautern

nachricht Innovative genetic tests for children with developmental disorders and epilepsy
11.07.2018 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: It’s All in the Mix: Jülich Researchers are Developing Fast-Charging Solid-State Batteries

There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Jülich scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature. The improvement was achieved by a “clever” choice of materials with a focus on consistently good compatibility. All components were made from phosphate compounds, which are well matched both chemically and mechanically.

The low current is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the development of solid-state batteries. It is the reason why the batteries take a relatively long...

Im Focus: Color effects from transparent 3D-printed nanostructures

New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference

Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

LaserForum 2018 deals with 3D production of components

17.08.2018 | Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Air pollution leads to cardiovascular diseases

21.08.2018 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Researchers target protein that protects bacteria's DNA 'recipes'

21.08.2018 | Life Sciences

A paper battery powered by bacteria

21.08.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>