Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study points to essential role of IL-22 in lung repair after the flu

11.03.2013
Results of new study published in the American Journal of Pathology

Once the initial episode of influenza has passed, the chronic effects tend to be overlooked. The results of a new study indicate that the cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22) plays a critical role in normal lung repair following influenza infection. This study is published in the April 2013 issue of the American Journal of Pathology.

"With the increasing prevalence of more infective and/or virulent strains of influenza, understanding the impact of virus on the host epithelium and the processes involved in lung repair are of great importance," says John F. Alcorn, PhD, an immunologist affiliated with the department of pediatrics at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC. He notes that the findings open up new possibilities for developing therapeutic agents that promote recovery of normal lung function and architecture after influenza infection and lessen the likelihood of secondary infections. "A key finding is that even after the resolution of infection, influenza results in lung parenchymal remodeling that may be critical to susceptibility to further injury," says Dr. Alcorn.

This series of experiments used 6- to 8-week-old wild-type (WT) mice (C57BL/6 strain) as well as IL-22–deficient mice, infected with influenza A PR/8/34 H1N1 or control vehicle. To determine the distribution of IL-22 in the lung, they used immunohistochemistry for the high affinity IL-22Ra1 receptor. Investigators found that in WT mice not inflected with influenza, IL-22 receptors were distributed on epithelial cells of the large and small airways, but not within the parenchyma. They noted that this receptor distribution suggests that in the absence of lung injury, IL-22 interacts mainly with the bronchial epithelial cells.

By 21 days post influenza infection, IL-22 receptors were observed in parenchymal tissue in injured areas, such as alveoli under repair. Researchers suggest that the IL-22 receptor can be upregulated at sites of influenza-associated injury.

The investigators also reported that 10 days after influenza infection, IL-22–deficient mice showed significantly more severe damage and greater lung edema than WT control mice, as indicated by higher lactate dehydrogenase levels and more total protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage. No differences were found in viral load. Another indication of more severe lung injury was an increase in the number of lymphocytes in the IL-22–deficient animals.

IL-22–deficient mice also showed functional impairments. For instance, those infected with influenza showed significantly decreased compliance (referring to lung distensibility) and increased hysteresis (referring to compliance differences during inspiration and expiration), indicating lung stiffness. Histological examination 21 days after influenza infection showed that IL-22–deficient mice displayed regions of diffuse inflammation and alveolar injury, few areas of metaplasia, higher intimal thickening, proteinaceous accumulation, and increased collagen deposition compared to WT mice. Gene expression analysis revealed aberrant expression of epithelial genes involved in repair processes in the mice lacking IL-22.

"The role of IL-22 in promoting epithelial repair is emerging. We demonstrate that IL-22 plays a critical role in regulating pulmonary epithelial repair responses during influenza infection and resolution," says Dr. Alcorn. IL-22 is currently under development as a potential therapeutic in human clinical trials.

David Sampson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.elsevier.com

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Researchers simplify tiny structures' construction drip by drip
12.11.2018 | Princeton University, Engineering School

nachricht Mandibular movement monitoring may help improve oral sleep apnea devices
06.11.2018 | Elsevier

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Leap Into Quantum Technology

Faster and secure data communication: This is the goal of a new joint project involving physicists from the University of Würzburg. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research funds the project with 14.8 million euro.

In our digital world data security and secure communication are becoming more and more important. Quantum communication is a promising approach to achieve...

Im Focus: Research icebreaker Polarstern begins the Antarctic season

What does it look like below the ice shelf of the calved massive iceberg A68?

On Saturday, 10 November 2018, the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its homeport of Bremerhaven, bound for Cape Town, South Africa.

Im Focus: Penn engineers develop ultrathin, ultralight 'nanocardboard'

When choosing materials to make something, trade-offs need to be made between a host of properties, such as thickness, stiffness and weight. Depending on the application in question, finding just the right balance is the difference between success and failure

Now, a team of Penn Engineers has demonstrated a new material they call "nanocardboard," an ultrathin equivalent of corrugated paper cardboard. A square...

Im Focus: Coping with errors in the quantum age

Physicists at ETH Zurich demonstrate how errors that occur during the manipulation of quantum system can be monitored and corrected on the fly

The field of quantum computation has seen tremendous progress in recent years. Bit by bit, quantum devices start to challenge conventional computers, at least...

Im Focus: Nanorobots propel through the eye

Scientists developed specially coated nanometer-sized vehicles that can be actively moved through dense tissue like the vitreous of the eye. So far, the transport of nano-vehicles has only been demonstrated in model systems or biological fluids, but not in real tissue. The work was published in the journal Science Advances and constitutes one step further towards nanorobots becoming minimally-invasive tools for precisely delivering medicine to where it is needed.

Researchers of the “Micro, Nano and Molecular Systems” Lab at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems in Stuttgart, together with an international...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

“3rd Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP 2018” Attracts International Experts and Users

09.11.2018 | Event News

On the brain’s ability to find the right direction

06.11.2018 | Event News

European Space Talks: Weltraumschrott – eine Gefahr für die Gesellschaft?

23.10.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

In focus: Peptides, the “little brothers and sisters” of proteins

12.11.2018 | Life Sciences

Materials scientist creates fabric alternative to batteries for wearable devices

12.11.2018 | Materials Sciences

A two-atom quantum duet

12.11.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>