Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Risk of death from heart failure is lower in women than in men

08.03.2012
Male gender deemed an independent risk factor for mortality over 3-year study period in 40,000+ patients

Women with chronic heart failure survive longer than their male counterparts, according to a large analysis of studies comprising data on more than 40,000 subjects.(1) The analysis represents the largest assessment of gender and mortality risk in heart failure - and provides evidence which many randomised trials have failed to do because they have been dominated by male patients.

Heart failure is by far the single biggest reason for acute hospital admission. Its incidence is still increasing: more cases are being identified, more people are living to an old age, and more are surviving a heart attack but with damage to the heart muscle. The condition arises when the heart fails to pump sufficient blood to meet the body's demands. The common symptoms of heart failure - shortness of breath, tiredness, oedema - are usually associated with failure of the left side of the heart (the left ventricle, which pumps blood into the circulation), as defined by a measurement known as left ventricular ejection fraction.

The latest study, published on the 8th of March in the European Journal of Heart Failure, also found that heart failure patients whose ejection fraction is not reduced (i.e., is "preserved") have a lower mortality risk that those with reduced ejection fraction. Preserved ejection fraction is more common among women than men, and this, say the authors, "may be expected to lead to better survival for these patients".

The study, known as the Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure (MAGGIC), analysed data from 31 randomised and observational studies involving 28,052 men and 13,897 women with chronic heart failure. The data were analysed for survival over three years of follow-up, and showed that 25.3% of the women and 25.7% of the men died during the three years; this represented a death rate of 137 deaths per 1000 patient-years in men and 135 per 100 patient-years in women.

When adjusted for age, however, the results showed that men had a 31% higher risk of death than women (hazard ratio 1.31, with statistically significant confidence intervals), and that male gender was an independent risk factor for death at three years (hazard ratio 1.23). The study, say the authors, was "appropriately powered to ascertain the prognostic significance of sex in patients with heart failure".

This excess mortality risk associated with male gender was of similar magnitude in patients with either reduced or preserved ejection fraction, which was not affected by either age or history of hypertension.

Other results from the study showed that women with chronic heart failure are on average older than men, are more likely to have a history of hypertension and diabetes, but that their heart failure is less likely to be caused by heart failure of ischaemic origin (reduced blood supply).

"This study has clearly demonstrated that survival is better for women with heart failure than for men, irrespective of ejection fraction, age or other variables," said first author Dr Manuel Martinez-Selles from the Gregorio MaranÞoìn University Hospital in Madrid.

"This survival benefit is inherent to female sex and there are a number of potential explanations for the better outcomes in women. The female heart appears to respond to injury differently from the male heart. For example, women have less ventricular remodelling, greater preservation of right ventricular function, and greater protection against ventricular arrhythmias, neurohormonal activation, genetic mutations, and apoptosis. Some of these advantages could be related to pregnancy and to sex-specific differences in gene expression."

The study also found that overall women were prescribed fewer recommended treatments for heart failure than men - including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and beta blockers. This under-use in women, say the authors, "was particularly evident in patients with reduced ejection fraction".

References
(1). Martinez-Selles M, Doughty RN, Poppe K, et al. Gender and survival in patients with heart failure: interactions with diabetes and aetiology. Results from the MAGGIC individual patient meta-analysis. Eur J Heart Fail 2012; doi:10.1093/eurjhf/hfs026
Notes for editors

The European Journal of Heart Failure is a journal of the European Society of Cardiology. It is published on behalf of the ESC by Oxford Journals, a division of Oxford University Press. Please acknowledge the journal as a source in any articles.

More information on this press release, contact details and a PDF of the paper are available from the ESC's press office.

press@escardio.org

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) represents more than 71,200 cardiology professionals across Europe and the Mediterranean. Its mission is to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in Europe.

Authors
ESC Press Office
press@escardio.org
+33(0)492 94 86 27
European Society of Cardiology

ESC Press Office | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.escardio.org

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Innovative genetic tests for children with developmental disorders and epilepsy
11.07.2018 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

nachricht Oxygen loss in the coastal Baltic Sea is “unprecedentedly severe”
05.07.2018 | European Geosciences Union

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Future electronic components to be printed like newspapers

A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.

The low-cost process, developed by Purdue University researchers, combines tools already used in industry for manufacturing metals on a large scale, but uses...

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

A smart safe rechargeable zinc ion battery based on sol-gel transition electrolytes

20.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Reversing cause and effect is no trouble for quantum computers

20.07.2018 | Information Technology

Princeton-UPenn research team finds physics treasure hidden in a wallpaper pattern

20.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>