Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Research suggests new therapeutic approach for spinal cord injury

13.03.2012
Results reported in the American Journal of Pathology

A new study suggests that administering FTY720, an oral drug that has shown promise in trials for human multiple sclerosis, significantly improves locomotor recovery in mice with spinal cord injury (SCI). The research suggests a possible new avenue to counteract the degeneration of the spinal cord in human SCI. The study will be published in the April 2012 issue of The American Journal of Pathology.

Beyond the initial tissue damage, much of the degradation of the spinal cord in SCI is due to a cascade of secondary injuries, including neuronal and glial apoptosis, inflammation, glial scar formation, local edema and ischemia, and oxidative stress. The aim of current SCI treatment is to counteract the mechanisms of secondary injury and prevent their pathological consequences, because central nervous system (CNS) neurons have very limited capacity to self-repair and regenerate.

Researchers from the Jichi Medical University School of Medicine and the Graduate School of Medicine at the University of Tokyo had previously shown that the concentration of the lysophospholipid mediator, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), was significantly increased in the location of a contusion injury, triggering the migration of neural progenitor/stem cells to the site of the injury. They hypothesized that targeting S1P receptors may become a candidate therapy for various refractory central nervous system disorders, including SCI.

FTY720 acts as a broad S1P receptor modulator. Its efficacy in central nervous system disorders is believed to derive from immunomodulation. Researchers found that orally administering FTY720 to mice shortly after contusion SCI significantly improved motor function recovery. Importantly, they found that the therapeutic effects of FTY720 were not solely dependent on immune modulation. The administration of FTY720 induced lymphopenia, clearing lymphocytes from the blood, and reduced T-cell infiltration in the spinal cord. But it did not affect the early infiltration of neutrophils and activation of microglia, and it did not reduce plasma levels and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord. Tests in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice) with SCI found that FTY720 significantly improved recovery of hind limb motor function.

"These data clearly indicate the importance of immune-independent functions of FTY720 in the amelioration of functional deficits after SCI in mice," explains lead investigator Yoichi Sakata, MD, PhD, Research Division of Cell and Molecular Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine.

Dr. Sakata notes that S1P receptors exist in many types of cells and play a role in many cellular processes. "We observed that FTY720 decreased vascular permeability and astrocyte accumulation in injured spinal cord. These changes were also noted in SCID mice, suggesting they are not dependent on lymphocyte function. Increased vascular permeability can lead to destruction of the blood-brain barrier in spinal cord, and astrocyte accumulation is the main cellular component of glial scar after CNS injury. FTY720 might counteract these secondary injuries and thereby prevent their pathological consequences."

"Our data suggest that targeting S1P receptors with FTY720 is an attractive therapeutic approach for SCI," Dr. Sakata concludes. "However, further evaluation utilizing larger animals such as non-human primates will be necessary to confirm its efficacy in treating SCI. Further, strategies targeted at modulating the SIP concentration in injured CNS may lead to new therapeutic approaches towards repairing various CNS disorders."

David Sampson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.elsevier.com

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Deep Brain Stimulation Provides Sustained Relief for Severe Depression
19.03.2019 | Universitätsklinikum Freiburg

nachricht AI study of risk factors in type 1 diabetes
06.03.2019 | University of Gothenburg

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The taming of the light screw

DESY and MPSD scientists create high-order harmonics from solids with controlled polarization states, taking advantage of both crystal symmetry and attosecond electronic dynamics. The newly demonstrated technique might find intriguing applications in petahertz electronics and for spectroscopic studies of novel quantum materials.

The nonlinear process of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in gases is one of the cornerstones of attosecond science (an attosecond is a billionth of a...

Im Focus: Magnetic micro-boats

Nano- and microtechnology are promising candidates not only for medical applications such as drug delivery but also for the creation of little robots or flexible integrated sensors. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) have created magnetic microparticles, with a newly developed method, that could pave the way for building micro-motors or guiding drugs in the human body to a target, like a tumor. The preparation of such structures as well as their remote-control can be regulated using magnetic fields and therefore can find application in an array of domains.

The magnetic properties of a material control how this material responds to the presence of a magnetic field. Iron oxide is the main component of rust but also...

Im Focus: Self-healing coating made of corn starch makes small scratches disappear through heat

Due to the special arrangement of its molecules, a new coating made of corn starch is able to repair small scratches by itself through heat: The cross-linking via ring-shaped molecules makes the material mobile, so that it compensates for the scratches and these disappear again.

Superficial micro-scratches on the car body or on other high-gloss surfaces are harmless, but annoying. Especially in the luxury segment such surfaces are...

Im Focus: Stellar cartography

The Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona released its first image of the surface magnetic field of another star. In a paper in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, the PEPSI team presents a Zeeman- Doppler-Image of the surface of the magnetically active star II Pegasi.

A special technique allows astronomers to resolve the surfaces of faraway stars. Those are otherwise only seen as point sources, even in the largest telescopes...

Im Focus: Heading towards a tsunami of light

Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have proposed a way to create a completely new source of radiation. Ultra-intense light pulses consist of the motion of a single wave and can be described as a tsunami of light. The strong wave can be used to study interactions between matter and light in a unique way. Their research is now published in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

"This source of radiation lets us look at reality through a new angle - it is like twisting a mirror and discovering something completely different," says...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

International Modelica Conference with 330 visitors from 21 countries at OTH Regensburg

11.03.2019 | Event News

Selection Completed: 580 Young Scientists from 88 Countries at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting

01.03.2019 | Event News

LightMAT 2019 – 3rd International Conference on Light Materials – Science and Technology

28.02.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Solving the efficiency of Gram-negative bacteria

22.03.2019 | Life Sciences

Bacteria bide their time when antibiotics attack

22.03.2019 | Life Sciences

Open source software helps researchers extract key insights from huge sensor datasets

22.03.2019 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>