Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Research links telomere length to emphysema risk

15.07.2011
Telomeres, the body's own cellular clocks, may be a crucial factor underlying the development of emphysema, according to research from Johns Hopkins University.

"We found that in mice that have short telomeres, there was a significant increased risk of developing emphysema after exposure to cigarette smoke," said Mary Armanios, MD, assistant professor of oncology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

The study appears online ahead of the print edition of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Telomeres are DNA protein structures that protect chromosome ends from degradation. Their length is genetically determined, but they also shorten progressively with cell division. Short telomeres are considered one marker of ageing in cells.

"With age, short telomeres accumulate and cause cells to stop dividing. Telomeres can be thought of as 'biological clocks,'" Dr. Armanios explained. "We wanted to determine whether telomere length itself was why susceptibility to emphysema increases with age."

Dr. Armanios and her colleagues examined the role of telomeres in lung disease by studying mice that have shortened telomeres. The mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for six hours a day, five days a week for six months.

The researchers then analyzed the lung tissue and pulmonary function of the mice. "Although the mice had no lung disease at baseline, after exposure to cigarette smoke, they surprisingly developed emphysema. In contrast, mice with long telomeres did not develop lung disease during our experiments," said Dr. Armanios.

In emphysema, alveoli, the small air sacs where oxygen exchange occurs, are permanently lost. Emphysema changes are normally found in older individuals, and occasionally even in those who have never smoked. But they are most commonly found in smokers.

Emphysema is a common cause of disability, and among the top 10 causes of mortality in the United States, it remains on the increase. While smoking cigarettes is the most common risk factor, it is not known why some people are more prone to developing emphysema than others. There are currently no available medical treatments, and affected individuals often require lung transplantation.

"We found that cells with damaged DNA stopped dividing, and lung cells with too much damage could no longer be repaired, thus contributing to the emphysema," she continued. "These results are one of the clearest examples of telomere length, which is an inherited factor, interacting with an environmental insult to cause disease. In fact, our results in mice suggest that short telomeres might contribute to how cigarette smoke accelerates aging in the lung in some individuals."

Dr. Armanios hopes that this new research will lead into new insights into identifying new ways to preserve lung function with age.

"It's important to remember that there is no good reason to smoke and the best way to prevent emphysema is to stop smoking," she said.

Previously, Dr. Armanios and her group had shown that shortened telomeres cause a disease known as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a disorder of unrelenting scarring in the lung. IPF occurs with emphysema in some individuals, and the incidence of both disorders increases with age and with smoking. "By linking telomere length to both disorders, there is now clear suggestion that they may share a common mechanism that can be traced to telomeres."

Further research must be done to confirm that the observed findings are applicable to humans, and, if so, what mechanisms might underlie them. "Now that we have examined the question of susceptibility in a rigorous genetic model, we can begin to study how telomere length affects emphysema risk in susceptible populations."

Keely Savoie | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.thoracic.org

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Study relating to materials testing Detecting damages in non-magnetic steel through magnetism
23.07.2018 | Technische Universität Kaiserslautern

nachricht Innovative genetic tests for children with developmental disorders and epilepsy
11.07.2018 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

Im Focus: Lining up surprising behaviors of superconductor with one of the world's strongest magnets

Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur

What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

2018 Work Research Conference

25.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

15.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Diving robots find Antarctic winter seas exhale surprising amounts of carbon dioxide

15.08.2018 | Earth Sciences

Early opaque universe linked to galaxy scarcity

15.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>