Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Transmission of Hepatitis C among family members

24.08.2005


A study examines the incidence and risk factors associated with Hepatitis C infection in rural Egypt



The prevalence of antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in Egypt is among the highest in the world. From the 1950s until 1982 hundreds of thousands were infected during mass campaigns to control schistosomiasis (a parasitic disease) using mass therapy with intravenous antimony compounds, but little is known about current risk factors and rates of transmission. Studies of high risk populations, such as intravenous drug users, shed little light on HCV transmission in Egypt where this high risk behavior is rare.

In a study led by G. Thomas Strickland, M.D. of the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore, MD and published in the September 2005 issue of Hepatology, Egyptian and American researchers surveyed rates of HCV infection in two rural communities having a prevalence of antibody to HCV of 24 and 9 percent.


Hepatology, the official journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), is published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., and is available online via Wiley InterScience at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/journal/hepatology.

A total of 10,112 HCV negative individuals were identified during an annual survey in 1997, with follow-up performed on an average of 1.6 years later in 6,738 subjects. Of these, 33 developed HCV antibodies, an incidence of 3.1/1000 person-years (PY), and 6.8/1000 PY in the 28 subjects in the village having the 24 percent prevalence of HCV. None of the 33 individuals was diagnosed with viral hepatitis or reported symptoms of acute hepatitis. An analysis of risk factors showed the strongest predictor of infection with HCV was having and anti-HCV positive family member. Among those that did, incidence was 5.8/1000 PY, compared to 1.0/1000 PY; 27/33 incident cases had an anti-HCV positive family member. Parenteral exposures increased the risk of HCV, but were not statistically significant; 67 percent of seroconverters were less than 20 years old, and the highest incidence rate (14.1/1000 PY) was in children under 10 living in households with an anti-HCV positive parent in the village with the high prevalence of HCV antibodies. The infection rate was also increased (13.1/1000 PY) in men married to an HCV positive woman.

"We believe HCV exposures in rural Egyptian communities are usually less intense than those in individuals infected by contaminated blood, either from transfusion of blood or a blood product, or from abuse of intravenous drugs," the authors state. Although not statistically proven to be a risk in this study, they cite frequent injections, usually given at home for health purposes with syringes and needles sometimes used for more than one person, as the most common parenteral exposure route. The strong relationship between the risk of infection in children and the presence of HCV antibodies in their parents suggests that transmission of HCV is occurring between family members, possibly by exposure to infectious blood or saliva, or by sharing needles. In the past, mass treatment campaigns for schistosomiasis involving multiple injections may have caused numerous HCV infections in families, but this would not account for current infection rates, other than placing younger members of families living with those who contracted HCV in this way at higher risk.

The authors conclude: "It is exceedingly important to learn the mechanisms by which HCV transmission is occurring between family members so that preventive measures can be initiated, particularly in children having HCV-infected parents."

David Greenberg | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.interscience.wiley.com/journal/hepatology
http://www.wiley.com

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Study relating to materials testing Detecting damages in non-magnetic steel through magnetism
23.07.2018 | Technische Universität Kaiserslautern

nachricht Innovative genetic tests for children with developmental disorders and epilepsy
11.07.2018 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Color effects from transparent 3D-printed nanostructures

New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference

Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

LaserForum 2018 deals with 3D production of components

17.08.2018 | Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Smallest transistor worldwide switches current with a single atom in solid electrolyte

17.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Robots as Tools and Partners in Rehabilitation

17.08.2018 | Information Technology

Climate Impact Research in Hannover: Small Plants against Large Waves

17.08.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>