The idea that a woman’s emotional state during pregnancy affects her unborn child has persisted for centuries and has, in recent years, been supported by science. Called the "fetal programming hypothesis," it theorizes that certain disturbing factors occurring during certain sensitive periods of development in utero can "program" set points in a variety of biological systems in the unborn child. This, then, affects the ability of those biological systems to change later in life, resulting in difficulties adapting physiologically and ultimately predisposing a child to disease and disorder.
We decided to investigate the affect of high levels of anxiety during a woman’s pregnancy on her child’s susceptibility for attention deficits, hyperactivity, acting out and anxiety disorders in childhood. We also wanted to learn whether there are specific vulnerable periods during the pregnancy in which this anxiety "programs" the child’s biological system, thus increasing the fetus’ susceptibility for such disorders.
We evaluated data collected on 71 normal mothers and their 72 first-born children during pregnancy and when their children were 8 or 9. The mothers completed questionnaires to measure their anxiety levels throughout their pregnancy. When the children were 8 or 9, the mothers, a teacher, and an impartial observer completed questionnaires to measure the child’s attention and hyperactivity, acting-out behavior and anxiety level.
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Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz (Germany) together with scientists from Dresden, Leipzig, Sofia (Bulgaria) and Madrid (Spain) have now developed and characterized a novel, metal-organic material which displays electrical properties mimicking those of highly crystalline silicon. The material which can easily be fabricated at room temperature could serve as a replacement for expensive conventional inorganic materials used in optoelectronics.
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Augsburg chemists present a new technology for compressing, storing and transporting highly volatile gases in porous frameworks/New prospects for gas-powered vehicles
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When we put water in a freezer, water molecules crystallize and form ice. This change from one phase of matter to another is called a phase transition. While this transition, and countless others that occur in nature, typically takes place at the same fixed conditions, such as the freezing point, one can ask how it can be influenced in a controlled way.
We are all familiar with such control of the freezing transition, as it is an essential ingredient in the art of making a sorbet or a slushy. To make a cold...
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