For several years, scientists have attempted to identify gene expression changes, using microarrays or DNA chips, in order to understand and predict breast cancer onset, progression, and clinical outcome. Although important insights into breast cancer have been drawn from determining the expression profiles of thousands of genes in tumors, the interpretation of experimental results has been complicated by the absence of knowledge about the gene expression in normal, non-cancerous, breast cells. However in a paper published today in the journal Cancer Research, a team of scientists from The Breakthrough Toby Robins Breast Cancer Research Centre at The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) in London, and the Breast Cancer Laboratory of Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (LICR) and University College London report that they have now elucidated the expression profiles of over 6000 genes in the two primary types of normal breast cells.
The majority of breast cancers originate in an internal structure of the breast, the terminal duct-lobular unit, which is comprised of two different types of cell; the inner luminal cells, potential milk-secreting cells, in which cancerous genetic changes occur; and the surrounding basal layer of contractile myoepithelial cells. The LICR/Breakthrough team separated and purified the two cell types from material from breast reduction surgery, and showed that the cell types have distinct and quite different gene expression profiles.
"The problem is that the vast majority of breast cancer experiments have used tumor samples because that was usually the only material available," explains LICRs Dr. A. Munro Neville, one of the senior authors of the study. "But tumors actually have different mixtures of normal luminal cells, normal myoepithelial cells, and cancer cells. Now we not only know that these cells have very different gene expression changes, we actually know the base-line expression of genes in both the normal cell types. So we can go back through all the data from the experiments with tumor samples, and discriminate between the genetic changes due to cell type differences and genetic changes due to cancer." Another important finding from the study was the identification of differences between luminal cells taken from primary breast samples and luminal cells cultured in the laboratory to which, for many ethical and logistical reasons, scientists frequently have to resort when performing experiments. The LICR/Breakthrough study results sound a cautionary warning for interpreting microarray data from cultured cells, and may also be helpful in determining between real experimental observations and artefacts relating to in vitro cell culture.
Sarah L. White | EurekAlert!
Innovative genetic tests for children with developmental disorders and epilepsy
11.07.2018 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
Oxygen loss in the coastal Baltic Sea is “unprecedentedly severe”
05.07.2018 | European Geosciences Union
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...
13.07.2018 | Event News
12.07.2018 | Event News
03.07.2018 | Event News
19.07.2018 | Earth Sciences
19.07.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering
19.07.2018 | Materials Sciences