Infection with bacteria that can cause peptic ulcers and distal stomach cancer may be associated with a reduced risk of a type of esophageal cancer called adenocarcinoma, according to a study in the March 3 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. However, that same study found that people infected with the bacteria, called Helicobacter pylori, who also had gastric atrophy, or "wasting" of the mucous membrane that lines the stomach, were at an increased risk of another type of esophageal cancer called squamous-cell carcinoma.
Earlier studies have suggested that H. pylori infection may be associated with a reduced risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (cancer that arises in the tissue at the lower part of the esophagus), perhaps because such an infection may induce gastric atrophy, leading to less acidic stomach fluids that are less harmful to esophageal tissue. In contrast, researchers have speculated that H. pylori infection may increase the risk of squamous-cell carcinoma (cancer that arises in the cells that line the esophagus) by stimulating the production of cancer-causing nitrosamines.
To investigate the relationship among H. pylori infection, gastric atrophy, and three types of cancer--esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma--Weimin Ye, M.D. Ph.D., of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, and colleagues looked at H. pylori infection rates and the presence of gastric atrophy among 133 patients with the three types of cancer and compared them with 499 control patients.
Katie Arnold | EurekAlert!
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The operational speed of semiconductors in various electronic and optoelectronic devices is limited to several gigahertz (a billion oscillations per second). This constrains the upper limit of the operational speed of computing. Now researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg, Germany, and the Indian Institute of Technology in Bombay have explained how these processes can be sped up through the use of light waves and defected solid materials.
Light waves perform several hundred trillion oscillations per second. Hence, it is natural to envision employing light oscillations to drive the electronic...
Most natural and artificial surfaces are rough: metals and even glasses that appear smooth to the naked eye can look like jagged mountain ranges under the microscope. There is currently no uniform theory about the origin of this roughness despite it being observed on all scales, from the atomic to the tectonic. Scientists suspect that the rough surface is formed by irreversible plastic deformation that occurs in many processes of mechanical machining of components such as milling.
Prof. Dr. Lars Pastewka from the Simulation group at the Department of Microsystems Engineering at the University of Freiburg and his team have simulated such...
Investigation of the temperature dependence of the skyrmion Hall effect reveals further insights into possible new data storage devices
The joint research project of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) that had previously demonstrated...
Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, recently completed a 5-year research project looking at how to make fibre optic communications systems more energy efficient. Among their proposals are smart, error-correcting data chip circuits, which they refined to be 10 times less energy consumptive. The project has yielded several scientific articles, in publications including Nature Communications.
Streaming films and music, scrolling through social media, and using cloud-based storage services are everyday activities now.
After helping develop a new approach for organic synthesis -- carbon-hydrogen functionalization -- scientists at Emory University are now showing how this approach may apply to drug discovery. Nature Catalysis published their most recent work -- a streamlined process for making a three-dimensional scaffold of keen interest to the pharmaceutical industry.
"Our tools open up whole new chemical space for potential drug targets," says Huw Davies, Emory professor of organic chemistry and senior author of the paper.
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