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Scientific research using studies and analyses

Studies and analyses are vital to progress and innovation and are the only way to empirically verify theories.

Science and empirical studies and analyses

Not all fields of science are dependent on empirical studies and analyses to verify a thesis. Mathematics, theology, philosophy and law are examples of fields that revolve within a stand-alone world in which new findings are derived by means of logical operations consisting of axioms, postulates or articles of faith (theology) that need not be proven true or accurate through empirical studies or analyses. Although these subjects are indispensable when it comes to basic research, by themselves they don't yield technical advances.

Empirical scientific approaches are diametrically opposed to these fields however. In this case, new theories are developed based on thought processes, observations and speculation. Ensuring that this knowledge has actual scientific relevance requires that it undergo an empirical evaluation however. Researchers rely on studies and analyses to compare these theses with real observations. New scientific knowledge is considered valid only after empirical studies and analyses show that theory and reality coincide. In the process it is imperative that the studies and analyses always produce the same result under the same experiment structure. Only then it is empirically proven that the result actually behaves in line with the theory.

Using empirical studies and analyses beyond the natural sciences and engineering

The validation process for new findings based on studies and analyses as described above is in no way limited to natural and engineering sciences such as physics, biology, chemistry, medicine and health, machine engineering or aero and space engineering. In fields such as the social sciences, studies and analyses are also indispensable for empirically proving the accuracy of assumptions and conclusions. Sociology uses empirical-based statistics, studies and analyses to determine if statements about the migration behavior of specific population groups is accurate for instance. The field of psychology also relies on analyses and studies to empirically validate the assumptions of certain behavior patterns.

Progress and innovation through empirical studies and analyses

Before the Enlightenment changed our way of thinking, universities tended to postulate and speculate more than perform scientific research. Innovations therefore were apt be accidental. Once researchers were convinced that scientific results were only possible through the use of empirical studies and analysis, the groundwork was laid for the rapid advances in science that followed. Empirical studies and analyses range from simple experiments, particularly by measuring, weighing and counting, to extremely complex processes that require an enormous amount of time and money. Determining the validity of scientific theories using empirical assurances is one of the prerequisites for implementing these theories in practice. When a specific fact has been confirmed and documented based on studies and analyses, the assumption is that it will remain a fact in the future under the same premises. Only then does it make sense to develop new technologies based on this knowledge, because this provides sufficient proof of the assumption that they always function in the same manner.

Two historical examples of progress based on studies and analyses

Gregor Mendel's studies and analyses on genetics provided empirical proof of his theories of heredity, which then led to modern plant breeding and the establishment of food security for millions of people. The effectiveness of penicillin, another invaluable innovation for mankind, was empirically proven by Alexander Fleming through medical studies and analyses.

Studies and Analyses

innovations-report maintains a wealth of in-depth studies and analyses from a variety of subject areas including business and finance, medicine and ph

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How to design city streets more fairly

These days, the scramble for space on urban streets manifests in unexpected ways: the Berlin district of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg has now called on the owners of cafés and restaurants to specify "space requirements in stationary parking areas or even on the roadway". The corona crisis and the need to place tables far apart and preferably outside suddenly challenge traffic planning of past decades. How will the road meet all interests? A new study takes a fundamental look at this. It was carried out by the Berlin-based climate research institute MCC (Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change) and the Technical University of Berlin.

The paper has just been published in the renowned journal Transport Reviews. "The special thing about this study is that we first present the conceivable...

18.05.2020 | nachricht Read more

Insects: Largest study to date confirms declines on land, but finds recoveries in freshwater – Highly variable trends

A worldwide compilation of long-term insect abundance studies shows that the number of land-dwelling insects is in decline. On average, there is a global decrease of 0.92% per year, which translates to approximately 24% over 30 years. At the same time, the number of insects living in freshwater has increased on average by 1.08% each year.

Despite these overall averages, local trends are highly variable. These are the results from the largest study of insect change to date, now published in the...

24.04.2020 | nachricht Read more

Statistical method developed at TU Dresden allows the detection of higher order dependencies

In December, the academic publisher De Gruyter launched its new journal “Open Statistics” with an opening article by TU Dresden mathematician Dr. Björn Böttcher. The article presents the extension of the statistical measure "distance multivariance" developed by Böttcher and his colleagues at TU Dresden.

Distance multivariance is a multivariate dependence measure, which can detect dependencies between an arbitrary number of random vectors each of which can have...

07.02.2020 | nachricht Read more

Novel study underscores microbial individuality

Largest-ever study analyzing cells' individual blueprints reveals new patterns in the global distribution and diversity of ocean microbes

A single drop of seawater can contain a wide representation of ocean microbes from around the world - revealing novel insights into the ecology, evolution and...

13.12.2019 | nachricht Read more

TU Dresden biologists examine sperm quality on the basis of their metabolism

Every tenth couple worldwide is affected by infertility. The reasons for this are manifold, but mostly well researched. Nevertheless, about fifteen percent of cases remain unexplained. A team of biologists at TU Dresden has now gained new insights into the metabolic properties that make up a good sperm cell.

Thanks to the advanced possibilities, in vitro fertilization is part of everyday medical practice. The so-called swim-up method is a sperm purification method...

29.11.2019 | nachricht Read more

Approaching the perception of touch in the brain

Larger parts of the cerebral cortex than thought process tactile stimuli

An encouraging pat on the back or a soft sweater on the skin - even things that we do not actively explore with the hands, we perceive with our body...

27.11.2019 | nachricht Read more

Stabilizing sulfur cathode by single Li-ion channel polymer binder

The growing demands on the high-performance energy-storage system for emerging technologies such as electric vehicles and artificial intelligence drive the development of high-performance batteries. As a promising candidate of next-generation batteries, Li-S batteries have been drawn much attention carrying a high specific capacity (1675 mAh g-1) and energy density (2600 Wh kg-1). However, the diffusion of polysulfide in electrolyte cause changes in the structure of the sulfur cathode during discharge-charge cycles, which greatly limits the commercial applications of Li-S batteries.

Polymer binder, as an essential component of electrode, acts to bond the active material and are related to the performance of batteries. Unfortunately, the...

25.11.2019 | nachricht Read more

Detecting mental and physical stress via smartphone

A study by Politecnico di Milano published in Sensors

Can we use our smartphones without any other peripherals or wearables to accurately extract vital parameters, such as heart beat rate and stress level?

22.11.2019 | nachricht Read more

Virtual "moonwalk" for science reveals distortions in spatial memory

In order to orient ourselves in space, and to find our way around, we form mental maps of our surroundings. But what happens if the coordinate system of our brain, which measures our mental maps, is distorted? Jacob Bellmund and Christian Doeller from the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences show in Nature Human Behaviour that under these circumstances there are also distortions in our spatial memory.

In order to remember where important events happened, or how to get from A to B, our brains form mental "maps" of our environment. An important component of...

18.11.2019 | nachricht Read more

Autonomous Agriculture in 2045?

New Study about the Autonomous Agricultural Machinery Market

The development and introduction of machines ranging from highly automated to driverless will have a strong impact on global agriculture. This inevitably...

15.11.2019 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New double-contrast technique picks up small tumors on MRI

Early detection of tumors is extremely important in treating cancer. A new technique developed by researchers at the University of California, Davis offers a significant advance in using magnetic resonance imaging to pick out even very small tumors from normal tissue. The work is published May 25 in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.

researchers at the University of California, Davis offers a significant advance in using magnetic resonance imaging to pick out even very small tumors from...

Im Focus: I-call - When microimplants communicate with each other / Innovation driver digitization - "Smart Health“

Microelectronics as a key technology enables numerous innovations in the field of intelligent medical technology. The Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering IBMT coordinates the BMBF cooperative project "I-call" realizing the first electronic system for ultrasound-based, safe and interference-resistant data transmission between implants in the human body.

When microelectronic systems are used for medical applications, they have to meet high requirements in terms of biocompatibility, reliability, energy...

Im Focus: When predictions of theoretical chemists become reality

Thomas Heine, Professor of Theoretical Chemistry at TU Dresden, together with his team, first predicted a topological 2D polymer in 2019. Only one year later, an international team led by Italian researchers was able to synthesize these materials and experimentally prove their topological properties. For the renowned journal Nature Materials, this was the occasion to invite Thomas Heine to a News and Views article, which was published this week. Under the title "Making 2D Topological Polymers a reality" Prof. Heine describes how his theory became a reality.

Ultrathin materials are extremely interesting as building blocks for next generation nano electronic devices, as it is much easier to make circuits and other...

Im Focus: Rolling into the deep

Scientists took a leukocyte as the blueprint and developed a microrobot that has the size, shape and moving capabilities of a white blood cell. Simulating a blood vessel in a laboratory setting, they succeeded in magnetically navigating the ball-shaped microroller through this dynamic and dense environment. The drug-delivery vehicle withstood the simulated blood flow, pushing the developments in targeted drug delivery a step further: inside the body, there is no better access route to all tissues and organs than the circulatory system. A robot that could actually travel through this finely woven web would revolutionize the minimally-invasive treatment of illnesses.

A team of scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (MPI-IS) in Stuttgart invented a tiny microrobot that resembles a white blood cell...

Im Focus: NASA's Curiosity rover finds clues to chilly ancient Mars buried in rocks

By studying the chemical elements on Mars today -- including carbon and oxygen -- scientists can work backwards to piece together the history of a planet that once had the conditions necessary to support life.

Weaving this story, element by element, from roughly 140 million miles (225 million kilometers) away is a painstaking process. But scientists aren't the type...

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