Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Novel immune system-based gene therapy induces strong responses in metastatic melanoma, sarcoma

01.02.2011
Researchers have found that a novel form of personalized therapy that genetically engineers a patient's own anti-tumor immune cells to fight tumors could treat metastatic melanoma and metastatic synovial cell sarcoma, representing a potentially new therapeutic approach against these and other cancers.

The technique, called adoptive immunotherapy, works with the body's immune system to fight cancer. Immune cells, called T lymphocytes, are removed, modified, expanded in large numbers, and given back to the patient. In this case, the process entailed genetically engineering T cell lymphocytes to express receptors directed against a specific antigen on the cancer cell.

"We believe that this approach of adoptive immunotherapy is the most effective means for using the body's immune system to combat cancer," said senior study author Steven A. Rosenberg, MD, PhD, chief of the surgery branch at the National Cancer Institute. "This paper represents the first time that adoptive immunotherapy using genetically modified cells has been successfully used to treat a solid cancer other than melanoma because we are targeting an antigen present on many types of cancer."

The treatment resulted in response rates of 45 percent and 67 percent in malignant melanoma and synovial cell sarcoma patients, respectively.

In earlier trials, Rosenberg and colleagues used adoptive immunotherapy on treatment-resistant patients with metastatic melanoma who had extensive prior therapy. Of 93 patients studied, they found that more than half had measurable responses, including 20 with complete disappearance of all melanoma metastases.

In the current study, 17 patients with treatment-resistant metastatic melanoma or metastatic synovial cell sarcoma received therapy with their own immune T cells. The cells were genetically engineered to express a T cell receptor that recognized the NY-ESO-1 cancer-testes antigen on cancer cells. NY-ESO-1 is expressed in one quarter to one third of common epithelial cancers such as those of the breast, kidney, esophagus and other cancer types, and in about 80 percent of synovial cell sarcoma.

Four of six patients (67 percent) with synovial cell sarcoma and five of 11 (45 percent) melanoma patients had measurable tumor regression. Two of the 11 melanoma patients had complete regression lasting for more than one year. The treatments had minimal toxicity.

"The effectiveness of this treatment in patients with synovial cell sarcoma may mean that this new approach can be used for patients with other cancers as well," Rosenberg said, "And potentially lead to new types of immunotherapy. "

Rosenberg's group recently reported the first example of using adoptive immunotherapy to treat a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and continues to explore different ways to genetically modify a patient's immune system to treat cancer. They have also recently published results showing that immune cells could be genetically modified to target and destroy the blood vessels supplying nutrients to tumors in experimental models.

ASCO Perspective: Sylvia Adams, MD, Member of ASCO's Cancer Communications Committee

"Several studies have suggested that transfusing immune system T cells can induce cancer regression in melanoma patients. Unlike prior studies, this study used engineered T cells specific for a tumor antigen that is carried by a variety of tumors, including sarcomas, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, malignant melanoma, and breast cancer. This approach broadens the applicability of the technique to several cancers and minimizes toxicity. The observed tumor shrinkage in patients with metastatic sarcoma and melanoma is promising, and if confirmed in additional clinical trials, this immunotherapy may become a new treatment option."

Helpful Links from Cancer.Net:

Understanding Immunotherapy
http://www.cancer.net/patient/All+About+Cancer/Cancer.Net+Feature+Articles/Treatments%2C+Tests%2C+and+Procedures/Understanding+Immunotherapy
Cancer.Net Guide to Melanoma
http://www.cancer.net/melanoma
Cancer.Net Guide to Sarcoma
http://www.cancer.net/sarcoma
The Journal of Clinical Oncology is the tri-monthly peer-reviewed journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the world's leading professional society representing physicians who treat people with cancer.

ATTRIBUTION TO THE JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY IS REQUESTED IN ALL NEWS COVERAGE.

Kelly Powell | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.asco.org

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Study relating to materials testing Detecting damages in non-magnetic steel through magnetism
23.07.2018 | Technische Universität Kaiserslautern

nachricht Innovative genetic tests for children with developmental disorders and epilepsy
11.07.2018 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

Im Focus: The “TRiC” to folding actin

Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.

Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...

Im Focus: Lining up surprising behaviors of superconductor with one of the world's strongest magnets

Scientists have discovered that the electrical resistance of a copper-oxide compound depends on the magnetic field in a very unusual way -- a finding that could help direct the search for materials that can perfectly conduct electricity at room temperatur

What happens when really powerful magnets--capable of producing magnetic fields nearly two million times stronger than Earth's--are applied to materials that...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

2018 Work Research Conference

25.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Staying in Shape

16.08.2018 | Life Sciences

Diving robots find Antarctic seas exhale surprising amounts of carbon dioxide in winter

16.08.2018 | Earth Sciences

Protein droplets keep neurons at the ready and immune system in balance

16.08.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>