Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Illinois researchers use pyrosequencing to study canine intestinal bacteria

13.08.2010
A dog's indiscriminate taste is not always a positive trait. In fact, it often leads to gastrointestinal infections and consequent ailments such as diarrhea and vomiting that come from eating spoiled food. Others develop gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases that are not directly attributed to the diet, but are influenced by intestinal bacteria.

Researchers at the University of Illinois are making strides in devising dietary interventions to combat these infections through advanced DNA pyrosequencing technology.

This new method of DNA sequencing has helped researchers uncover the phylogeny or "who's there" in a healthy dog's gut. Their goal was to obtain a standard that could be used as a comparison to diseased states in the future.

"It's a first step toward making progress in our understanding of how diet affects gastrointestinal infections," said Kelly Swanson, U of I associate professor of animal science. "Dogs do not rely heavily on microbial fermentation as it pertains to energy requirements, but a balanced and stable microbiota is critical for maintaining gastrointestinal health."

Up until now scientists could only culture a small percentage of the bacteria in a dog's gut and due to technological limitations, they couldn't determine the complete phylogeny.

More than 80,000 DNA sequences were evaluated in the first study to reveal that the highest number of bacteria present in the gut were Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes. Fusobacteria, while not as common, were also among the highest number of bacteria found.

"Often we don't know if an altered bacterial community is the cause of disease or the effect of disease," he said. "We also don't know if it's one species or multiple species working together to create problems for the dog's intestinal health."

In a follow-up study, using approximately one million DNA sequences, their team identified the metabolic pathways that exist in intestinal bacteria of healthy animals including nutrient metabolism, virulence, and stress response, Swanson said. They also compared the phylogeny of a dog's intestine to that of humans, mice and chickens to determine similarities and differences between species.

Swanson and his teammates are interested in continuing to learn how dietary intervention, pharmaceuticals and age affect microbial populations. In addition, most pet dogs in developed countries are now treated as family, with many not only living in the home, but also eating, sleeping and playing with their owners. This close proximity has relevance in regards to zoonotic disease and the direct link between human and dog illness.

"Phylogenetic characterization of fecal microbial communities of dogs fed diets with or without supplemental dietary fiber using 454 pyrosequencing" was published in PLoS ONE. Researchers include Ingmar Middelbos, Brittany Vester Boler, Ani Qu, Bryan White, George Fahey and Swanson, all of the U of I. Funding was provided by the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station.

"Phylogenetic and gene-centric metagenomics of the canine intestinal microbiome reveals similarities with humans and mice" was published in The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology. Researchers include Scot Dowd of Research and Testing Laboratory; Jan Suchodolski of Texas A& M University; Ingmar Middelbos, Brittany Vester Boler, Kathleen Barry, Isaac Cann, Bryan White, George Fahey and Swanson of the U of I; Karen Nelson and Manolito Torralba of the J. Craig Venter Institute; and Bernard Henrissat and Pedro Coutinho of the Universites Aix-Marseille I and II in France. Funding was provided by the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station.

Jennifer Shike | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.illinois.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Innovative genetic tests for children with developmental disorders and epilepsy
11.07.2018 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

nachricht Oxygen loss in the coastal Baltic Sea is “unprecedentedly severe”
05.07.2018 | European Geosciences Union

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First evidence on the source of extragalactic particles

For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.

To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...

Im Focus: Magnetic vortices: Two independent magnetic skyrmion phases discovered in a single material

For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.

Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...

Im Focus: Breaking the bond: To take part or not?

Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.

A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...

Im Focus: New 2D Spectroscopy Methods

Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.

"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....

Im Focus: Chemical reactions in the light of ultrashort X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers

Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. Researchers can use these flashes to resolve structures with diameters on the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Leading experts in Diabetes, Metabolism and Biomedical Engineering discuss Precision Medicine

13.07.2018 | Event News

Conference on Laser Polishing – LaP: Fine Tuning for Surfaces

12.07.2018 | Event News

11th European Wood-based Panel Symposium 2018: Meeting point for the wood-based materials industry

03.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

NYSCF researchers develop novel bioengineering technique for personalized bone grafts

18.07.2018 | Life Sciences

Machine-learning predicted a superhard and high-energy-density tungsten nitride

18.07.2018 | Materials Sciences

Why might reading make myopic?

18.07.2018 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>