Studies and analyses are vital to progress and innovation and are the only way to empirically verify theories.
Not all fields of science are dependent on empirical studies and analyses to verify a thesis. Mathematics, theology, philosophy and law are examples of fields that revolve within a stand-alone world in which new findings are derived by means of logical operations consisting of axioms, postulates or articles of faith (theology) that need not be proven true or accurate through empirical studies or analyses. Although these subjects are indispensable when it comes to basic research, by themselves they don't yield technical advances.
Empirical scientific approaches are diametrically opposed to these fields however. In this case, new theories are developed based on thought processes, observations and speculation. Ensuring that this knowledge has actual scientific relevance requires that it undergo an empirical evaluation however. Researchers rely on studies and analyses to compare these theses with real observations. New scientific knowledge is considered valid only after empirical studies and analyses show that theory and reality coincide. In the process it is imperative that the studies and analyses always produce the same result under the same experiment structure. Only then it is empirically proven that the result actually behaves in line with the theory.
The validation process for new findings based on studies and analyses as described above is in no way limited to natural and engineering sciences such as physics, biology, chemistry, medicine and health, machine engineering or aero and space engineering. In fields such as the social sciences, studies and analyses are also indispensable for empirically proving the accuracy of assumptions and conclusions. Sociology uses empirical-based statistics, studies and analyses to determine if statements about the migration behavior of specific population groups is accurate for instance. The field of psychology also relies on analyses and studies to empirically validate the assumptions of certain behavior patterns.
Before the Enlightenment changed our way of thinking, universities tended to postulate and speculate more than perform scientific research. Innovations therefore were apt be accidental. Once researchers were convinced that scientific results were only possible through the use of empirical studies and analysis, the groundwork was laid for the rapid advances in science that followed. Empirical studies and analyses range from simple experiments, particularly by measuring, weighing and counting, to extremely complex processes that require an enormous amount of time and money. Determining the validity of scientific theories using empirical assurances is one of the prerequisites for implementing these theories in practice. When a specific fact has been confirmed and documented based on studies and analyses, the assumption is that it will remain a fact in the future under the same premises. Only then does it make sense to develop new technologies based on this knowledge, because this provides sufficient proof of the assumption that they always function in the same manner.
Gregor Mendel's studies and analyses on genetics provided empirical proof of his theories of heredity, which then led to modern plant breeding and the establishment of food security for millions of people. The effectiveness of penicillin, another invaluable innovation for mankind, was empirically proven by Alexander Fleming through medical studies and analyses.
innovations-report maintains a wealth of in-depth studies and analyses from a variety of subject areas including business and finance, medicine and ph
New Study about the Autonomous Agricultural Machinery Market
The development and introduction of machines ranging from highly automated to driverless will have a strong impact on global agriculture. This inevitably...15.11.2019 | Read more
For the first time, a study led by researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum München and the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) shows how glucocorticoid hormones, such as cortisol, control sugar and fat levels differently during day and night, feeding and fasting, rest and activity, over the course of 24 hours
The research conducted in mice found that the time-of-day dependent metabolic cycle is altered by high caloric diet. Since glucocorticoids are widely used...07.11.2019 | Read more
Horses show different learning techniques; most used humans for learning the place where a treat could be baited and learned how to open the feed box by individual try and error learning
Two students at Nürtingen-Geislingen University studied learning techniques applied by horses for learning how to open a feed box after observing humans doing...30.10.2019 | Read more
Implantable defibrillators can save lives, but also harbor risks. A major European study headed by three researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM), LMU München and University Medical Center Göttingen has found that a special ECG method can help to identify the patients most likely to benefit from these devices. The results of the study have now been published in The Lancet.
In heart patients with potentially life-threatening arrhythmias, a strong electrical shock applied to the cardiac muscle can reset the heart to its regular...02.09.2019 | Read more
As methane concentrations increase in the Earth’s atmosphere, chemical fingerprints point to a probable source: shale oil and gas, according to new Cornell University research published today (14 August) in Biogeosciences, a journal of the European Geosciences Union.
The research suggests that this methane has less carbon-13 relative to carbon-12 (denoting the weight of the carbon atom at the centre of the methane molecule)...14.08.2019 | Read more
We often have little difficulty in remembering the chronology of events. We can tell others how much time passed between two events and which one occurred first. Apparently, memories of events in the brain are linked when they occur close together. Using an experiment that combines learning in virtual reality and brain scans, a team of researchers led by Jacob Bellmund and Christian Doeller from the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences describes how a temporal map of memories is created in the entorhinal cortex.
Part of the medial temporal lobe, the entorhinal cortex seems to play an important role. But how exactly does this part of our brain, located close to the...06.08.2019 | Read more
Engineers have for the first time created a simulator mimicking the mechanical behavior of the human torso -- which could lead to innovations in the design of medical back supports
Engineers have for the first time created a simulator mimicking the mechanical behaviour of the human torso - which could lead to innovations in the design of...01.08.2019 | Read more
Fat cells allow melanoma cells to penetrate the dermis, from which they spread, causing fatal metastases in vital organs, Tel Aviv University researchers say
Researchers at Tel Aviv University, led by Prof. Carmit Levy and Dr. Tamar Golan of the Department of Human Genetics and Biochemistry at TAU's Sackler School...24.07.2019 | Read more
In 1665, Lord Christiaan Huygens found that two pendulum clocks, hung in the same wooden structure, oscillated spontaneously and perfectly in line but in opposite directions: the clocks oscillated in anti-phase. Since then, synchronization of coupled oscillators in nature has been described at several scales: from heart cells to bacteria, neural networks and even in binary star systems -spontaneously synchronized.
Mechanical oscillators are typical in these systems. In the nanoscale, the challenge is to synchronize these. In these lines, an article published in the...05.07.2019 | Read more
Rutgers-led study shows the benefits of removing toner with pulses of intense xenon light
Imagine if your printer had an "unprint" button that used pulses of light to remove toner, curbing environmental impacts compared with conventional paper...26.06.2019 | Read more
The Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM in Dresden has succeeded in using Selective Electron Beam Melting (SEBM) to...
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are valuable for a wide variety of applications. Made of graphene sheets rolled into tubes 10,000 times smaller than a human hair, CNTs have an exceptional strength-to-mass ratio and excellent thermal and electrical properties. These features make them ideal for a range of applications, including supercapacitors, interconnects, adhesives, particle trapping and structural color.
New research reveals even more potential for CNTs: as a coating, they can both repel and hold water in place, a useful property for applications like printing,...
If you've ever tried to put several really strong, small cube magnets right next to each other on a magnetic board, you'll know that you just can't do it. What happens is that the magnets always arrange themselves in a column sticking out vertically from the magnetic board. Moreover, it's almost impossible to join several rows of these magnets together to form a flat surface. That's because magnets are dipolar. Equal poles repel each other, with the north pole of one magnet always attaching itself to the south pole of another and vice versa. This explains why they form a column with all the magnets aligned the same way.
Now, scientists at ETH Zurich have managed to create magnetic building blocks in the shape of cubes that - for the first time ever - can be joined together to...
Quantum-based communication and computation technologies promise unprecedented applications, such as unconditionally secure communications, ultra-precise...
In two experiments performed at the free-electron laser FLASH in Hamburg a cooperation led by physicists from the Heidelberg Max Planck Institute for Nuclear physics (MPIK) demonstrated strongly-driven nonlinear interaction of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) laser pulses with atoms and ions. The powerful excitation of an electron pair in helium was found to compete with the ultrafast decay, which temporarily may even lead to population inversion. Resonant transitions in doubly charged neon ions were shifted in energy, and observed by XUV-XUV pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy.
An international team led by physicists from the MPIK reports on new results for efficient two-electron excitations in helium driven by strong and ultrashort...
15.11.2019 | Event News
15.11.2019 | Event News
05.11.2019 | Event News
15.11.2019 | Power and Electrical Engineering
15.11.2019 | Power and Electrical Engineering
15.11.2019 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation