Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Childhood cancer survivors are at high risk for multiple tumors as they age

28.06.2011
Findings from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study led by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital investigators identify new cancer risks when survivors become adults; underscore the importance of regular cancer screenings

The largest study yet of adult childhood cancer survivors found that the first cancer is just the beginning of a lifelong battle against different forms of the disease for about 10 percent of these survivors.

The research involved 14,358 individuals enrolled in the federally funded Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). St. Jude Children's Research Hospital investigators leading the effort reported that 1,382, or 9.6 percent, of survivors developed new tumors unrelated to their original cancers. About 30 percent of those survivors, 386 individuals, developed third tumors. Four or more tumors were found in 153 survivors in this study. The results appear in the June 27 online edition of the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

"These findings show that when you describe adult survivors of childhood cancer it is not sufficient to describe their risk of a first subsequent cancer, but to acknowledge that some of these patients are at risk for multiple cancers. This is the first study to more fully enumerate that risk," said Gregory Armstrong, M.D., the study's principal investigator and an assistant member of the St. Jude Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control.

The work underscores the importance of cancer screenings for this growing population. "Too often, survivors still are not getting these important cancer screening tests beginning as early or as often as recommended," Armstrong said. For example, mammograms beginning at age 25 rather than age 40 are recommended for female survivors whose childhood treatment included chest radiation of 20 grays or more. A gray is a measure of absorbed radiation.

An estimated 366,000 Americans alive today are childhood cancer survivors. With overall long-term childhood cancer survival rates now at 80 percent, the ranks of survivors are expected to keep growing. The CCSS was launched in 1994 to identify the challenges facing childhood cancer survivors and to develop new methods to ease or prevent late effects. St. Jude is the study's central coordinating institution. St. Jude scientists are also focused on using genomics and other tools to develop the next generation of cancer therapies and better match patients with existing therapy to increase cures but decrease the risk of treatment-related toxicities, including second cancers.

In this study, half of the participants had survived at least 23 years since their childhood cancers were found. Their median age was 32 years old, meaning most had yet to reach the age when rates of prostate, breast and other cancers increase sharply in the general population.

Almost 70 percent of study participants received radiation as part of their successful childhood cancer treatment. This study reinforced earlier research that linked radiation therapy with an increased risk of developing additional tumors, malignant and benign, later in life. Female survivors whose childhood cancer treatment included radiation were among those at highest risk for later tumors, particularly breast tumors.

For 735 survivors, the second tumors were malignant and thus life-threatening.

Risks were also associated with benign tumors. Investigators showed survivors whose second tumor was a non-melanoma skin cancer had a 1 in 5 chance of being diagnosed with another, more aggressive cancer within 15 years. The group included 485 survivors with either basal or squamous cell skin cancers. "These survivors are candidates for additional genetic evaluation to look for an underlying genetic propensity for tumor development or an inability to protect healthy cells against the harmful effects of radiation," Armstrong said.

Of the 176 survivors whose second tumors were found in the breast, 42 women developed multiple tumors. For many, researchers reported that the tumors apparently developed independently in both breasts almost simultaneously. "This finding reinforces previous reports of multiple breast cancers and defines them as a significant risk," Armstrong said.

This study included survivors whose cancers were found between 1970 and 1986 when they were age 20 or younger. Participants were treated at one of 26 institutions in the United States or Canada and survived at least five years after their cancer diagnosis.

The other authors were Wei Liu, Deokuma Srivastava and senior author Les Robison, all of St. Jude; Wendy Leisenring, Fred Hutchison Cancer Research Center; Yutaka Yasui, University of Alberta; Sue Hammond, The Ohio State University; Smita Bhatia, City of Hope; Joseph Neglia, University of Minnesota Medical School; and Marilyn Stovall, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

The National Cancer Institute and ALSAC funded this research.

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital is internationally recognized for its pioneering research and treatment of children with cancer and other catastrophic diseases. Ranked one of the best pediatric cancer hospitals in the country, St. Jude is the first and only National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center devoted solely to children. St. Jude has treated children from all 50 states and from around the world, serving as a trusted resource for physicians and researchers. St. Jude has developed research protocols that helped push overall survival rates for childhood cancer from less than 20 percent when the hospital opened to almost 80 percent today. St. Jude is the national coordinating center for the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium and the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. In addition to pediatric cancer research, St. Jude is also a leader in sickle cell disease research and is a globally prominent research center for influenza.

Founded in 1962 by the late entertainer Danny Thomas, St. Jude freely shares its discoveries with scientific and medical communities around the world, publishing more research articles than any other pediatric cancer research center in the United States. St. Jude treats more than 5,700 patients each year and is the only pediatric cancer research center where families never pay for treatment not covered by insurance. St. Jude is financially supported by thousands of individual donors, organizations and corporations without which the hospital's work would not be possible. For more information, go to www.stjude.org.

Summer Freeman | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.stjude.org

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Study relating to materials testing Detecting damages in non-magnetic steel through magnetism
23.07.2018 | Technische Universität Kaiserslautern

nachricht Innovative genetic tests for children with developmental disorders and epilepsy
11.07.2018 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: It’s All in the Mix: Jülich Researchers are Developing Fast-Charging Solid-State Batteries

There are currently great hopes for solid-state batteries. They contain no liquid parts that could leak or catch fire. For this reason, they do not require cooling and are considered to be much safer, more reliable, and longer lasting than traditional lithium-ion batteries. Jülich scientists have now introduced a new concept that allows currents up to ten times greater during charging and discharging than previously described in the literature. The improvement was achieved by a “clever” choice of materials with a focus on consistently good compatibility. All components were made from phosphate compounds, which are well matched both chemically and mechanically.

The low current is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the development of solid-state batteries. It is the reason why the batteries take a relatively long...

Im Focus: Color effects from transparent 3D-printed nanostructures

New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference

Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...

Im Focus: Unraveling the nature of 'whistlers' from space in the lab

A new study sheds light on how ultralow frequency radio waves and plasmas interact

Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...

Im Focus: New interactive machine learning tool makes car designs more aerodynamic

Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.

When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...

Im Focus: Robots as 'pump attendants': TU Graz develops robot-controlled rapid charging system for e-vehicles

Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.

Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

LaserForum 2018 deals with 3D production of components

17.08.2018 | Event News

Within reach of the Universe

08.08.2018 | Event News

A journey through the history of microscopy – new exhibition opens at the MDC

27.07.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Biosensor allows real-time oxygen monitoring for 'organs-on-a-chip'

21.08.2018 | Medical Engineering

Researchers discover link between magnetic field strength and temperature

21.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

IHP technology ready for space flights

21.08.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>