Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

BUSM study reveals potential target to better treat, cure anxiety disorders

06.03.2013
Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have, for the first time, identified a specific group of cells in the brainstem whose activation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is critical for the regulation of emotional memory processing.

The findings, published in the Journal of Neuroscience, could help lead to the development of effective behavioral and pharmacological therapies to treat anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias and panic attacks.

There are two main stages of sleep – REM and non-REM – and both are necessary to maintain health and to regulate multiple memory systems, including emotional memory. During non-REM sleep, the body repairs tissue, regenerates cells and improves the function of the body's immune system. During REM sleep, the brain becomes more active and the muscles of the body become paralyzed. Additionally, dreaming generally occurs during REM sleep, as well as physiological events including saccadic eye movements and rapid fluctuations of respiration, heart rate and body temperature. One particular physiological event, which is a hallmark sign of REM sleep, is the appearance of phasic pontine waves (P-waves). The P-wave is a unique brain wave generated by the activation of a group of glutamatergic cells in a specific region within the brainstem called the pons.

Memories of fearful experiences can lead to enduring alterations in emotion and behavior and sleep plays a natural emotional regulatory role after stressful and traumatic events. Persistence of sleep disturbances, particularly of REM sleep, is predictive of developing symptoms of anxiety disorders. A core symptom of these disorders frequently reported by patients is the persistence of fear-provoking memories that they are unable to extinguish. Presently, exposure therapy, which involves controlled re-exposure to the original fearful experience, is considered one of the most effective evidence-based treatments for anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy produces a new memory, called an extinction memory, to coexist and compete with the fearful memory when the fearful cue/context is re-encountered.

The strength of the extinction memory determines the efficacy of exposure therapy. A demonstrated prerequisite for the successful development of an extinction memory is adequate sleep, particularly REM sleep, after exposure therapy. However, adequate or increased sleep alone does not universally guarantee its therapeutic efficacy.

"Given the inconsistency and unpredictability of exposure therapy, we are working to identify which process(es) during REM sleep dictate the success or failure of exposure therapy," said Subimal Datta, PhD, director and principle investigator at the Laboratory of Sleep and Cognitive Neuroscience at BUSM who served as the study's lead author.

The researchers used contextual fear extinction training, which works to turn off the conditioned fear, to study which brain mechanisms play a role in the success of exposure therapy. The study results showed that fear extinction training increased REM sleep. Surprisingly, however, only 57 percent of subjects retained fear extinction memory, meaning that they did not experience the fear, after 24 hours. There was a tremendous increase of phasic P-wave activity among those subjects. In 43 percent of subjects, however, the wave activity was absent and they failed to retain fear extinction memory, meaning that they re-experienced fear.

"The study results provide direct evidence that the activation of phasic P-wave activity within the brainstem, in conjunction with exposure therapy, is critical for the development of long-term retention of fear extinction memory," said Datta, who also is a professor of psychiatry and neurology at BUSM. In addition, the study indicates the important role that the brainstem plays in regulating emotional memory.

Future research will explore how to activate this mechanism in order to help facilitate the development of new potential pharmacological treatments that will complement exposure therapy to better treat anxiety and other psychological disorders.

According to the National Institute of Mental Health, anxiety disorders affect approximately 40 million American adults each year. While anxiety can sometimes be a normal and beneficial reaction to stress, some people experience excessive anxiety that they are unable to control, which can negatively impact their day to day life.

Research included in this study was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Mental Health under grant award number MH 59839 (PI: Datta) and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke under grant award number NS 34004 (PI: Datta).

Gina DiGravio | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.bmc.org

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht New study first to predict which oil and gas wells are leaking methane
21.12.2018 | University of Vermont

nachricht Droughts boost emissions as hydropower dries up
21.12.2018 | Stanford's School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nanocellulose for novel implants: Ears from the 3D-printer

Cellulose obtained from wood has amazing material properties. Empa researchers are now equipping the biodegradable material with additional functionalities to produce implants for cartilage diseases using 3D printing.

It all starts with an ear. Empa researcher Michael Hausmann removes the object shaped like a human ear from the 3D printer and explains:

Im Focus: Elucidating the Atomic Mechanism of Superlubricity

The phenomenon of so-called superlubricity is known, but so far the explanation at the atomic level has been missing: for example, how does extremely low friction occur in bearings? Researchers from the Fraunhofer Institutes IWM and IWS jointly deciphered a universal mechanism of superlubricity for certain diamond-like carbon layers in combination with organic lubricants. Based on this knowledge, it is now possible to formulate design rules for supra lubricating layer-lubricant combinations. The results are presented in an article in Nature Communications, volume 10.

One of the most important prerequisites for sustainable and environmentally friendly mobility is minimizing friction. Research and industry have been dedicated...

Im Focus: Mission completed – EU partners successfully test new technologies for space robots in Morocco

Just in time for Christmas, a Mars-analogue mission in Morocco, coordinated by the Robotics Innovation Center of the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) as part of the SRC project FACILITATORS, has been successfully completed. SRC, the Strategic Research Cluster on Space Robotics Technologies, is a program of the European Union to support research and development in space technologies. From mid-November to mid-December 2018, a team of more than 30 scientists from 11 countries tested technologies for future exploration of Mars and Moon in the desert of the Maghreb state.

Close to the border with Algeria, the Erfoud region in Morocco – known to tourists for its impressive sand dunes – offered ideal conditions for the four-week...

Im Focus: Programming light on a chip

Research opens doors in photonic quantum information processing, optical signal processing and microwave photonics

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a new integrated photonics platform that can...

Im Focus: Physicists uncover new competing state of matter in superconducting material

A team of experimentalists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory and theoreticians at University of Alabama Birmingham discovered a remarkably long-lived new state of matter in an iron pnictide superconductor, which reveals a laser-induced formation of collective behaviors that compete with superconductivity.

"Superconductivity is a strange state of matter, in which the pairing of electrons makes them move faster," said Jigang Wang, Ames Laboratory physicist and...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

11th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Aachen, 3-4 April 2019

14.01.2019 | Event News

ICTM Conference 2019: Digitization emerges as an engineering trend for turbomachinery construction

12.12.2018 | Event News

New Plastics Economy Investor Forum - Meeting Point for Innovations

10.12.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientists coax proteins to form synthetic structures with method that mimics nature

15.01.2019 | Life Sciences

Next generation photonic memory devices are light-written, ultrafast and energy efficient

15.01.2019 | Information Technology

Viennese scientists develop promising new type of polymers

15.01.2019 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>