Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Analyzing disease transmission at the community level

29.05.2012
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have found evidence of a role for neighborhood immunity in determining risk of dengue infection.

While it is established that immunity can be an important factor in the large-scale distribution of disease, this study demonstrates that local variation at spatial scales of just a few hundred meters can significantly alter the risk of infection, even in a highly mobile and dense urban population with significant immunity. The study is published in May 28 edition of the journal PNAS.

Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that infects nearly 50 million people worldwide each year, resulting in more than 19,000 deaths. There are four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1) circulating in Bangkok, Thailand, where the study was conducted. Infection with dengue provides lifelong immunity to the infecting serotype and there is evidence infection temporarily protects from infection by other serotypes. When susceptibility to other serotypes returns there is an increased risk for severe disease. For the study, the research team used the household location of 1,912 confirmed dengue cases in Bangkok that were admitted to a local children's hospital between 1995 and 2000. The available data enabled the researchers to pair dengue serotype infections with specific households.

Observations indicated that immunological memory of dengue serotypes occurs at the neighborhood level in this large urban setting. The researchers developed methods that have broad application to studying the spatiotemporal structure of disease risk where pathogen serotype or genetic information is known.

"We observe patterns of spatiotemporal dependence consistent with the expected impacts of lifelong and short-term immunity, and immune enhancement of disease at distances of under one kilometer," said Henrik Salje, lead author of the study and doctoral candidate in the Bloomberg School's Department of Epidemiology.

"By providing insight into the potential spatial scales that immunity in a population is correlated and distances over which the disease is dispersed, these findings can help us further understand how dengue is being maintained in endemic populations," said the study's senior author, Derek Cummings, PhD, assistant professor with the Bloomberg School's departments of Epidemiology and International Health.

The authors of "Revealing the microscale spatial signature of dengue transmission and immunity in an urban population" are Henrik Salje, Justin Lessler, Timothy P. Endy, Frank Curriero, Robert V. Gibbons, Ananda Nisalak, Suchitira Nimmannitya, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Richard G. Jarman, Stephen J. Thomas, Donald S. Burke and Derek A. T. Cummings.

The research was funded by grants from the Gates Foundation Vaccine Modeling Initiative, the National Institutes of Health, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund Career Award, and the Research and Policy for Infectious Disease Dynamics initiative of the NIH and Department of Homeland Security.

Follow the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health on Facebook at http://www.facebook.com/JohnsHopkinsSPH and Twitter at http://www.twitter.com/JohnsHopkinsSPH.

Tim Parsons | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jhsph.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Self-organising system enables motile cells to form complex search pattern
07.05.2019 | Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster

nachricht Mouse studies show minimally invasive route can accurately administer drugs to brain
02.05.2019 | Johns Hopkins Medicine

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The geometry of an electron determined for the first time

Physicists at the University of Basel are able to show for the first time how a single electron looks in an artificial atom. A newly developed method enables them to show the probability of an electron being present in a space. This allows improved control of electron spins, which could serve as the smallest information unit in a future quantum computer. The experiments were published in Physical Review Letters and the related theory in Physical Review B.

The spin of an electron is a promising candidate for use as the smallest information unit (qubit) of a quantum computer. Controlling and switching this spin or...

Im Focus: Self-repairing batteries

UTokyo engineers develop a way to create high-capacity long-life batteries

Engineers at the University of Tokyo continually pioneer new ways to improve battery technology. Professor Atsuo Yamada and his team recently developed a...

Im Focus: Quantum Cloud Computing with Self-Check

With a quantum coprocessor in the cloud, physicists from Innsbruck, Austria, open the door to the simulation of previously unsolvable problems in chemistry, materials research or high-energy physics. The research groups led by Rainer Blatt and Peter Zoller report in the journal Nature how they simulated particle physics phenomena on 20 quantum bits and how the quantum simulator self-verified the result for the first time.

Many scientists are currently working on investigating how quantum advantage can be exploited on hardware already available today. Three years ago, physicists...

Im Focus: Accelerating quantum technologies with materials processing at the atomic scale

'Quantum technologies' utilise the unique phenomena of quantum superposition and entanglement to encode and process information, with potentially profound benefits to a wide range of information technologies from communications to sensing and computing.

However a major challenge in developing these technologies is that the quantum phenomena are very fragile, and only a handful of physical systems have been...

Im Focus: A step towards probabilistic computing

Working group led by physicist Professor Ulrich Nowak at the University of Konstanz, in collaboration with a team of physicists from Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, demonstrates how skyrmions can be used for the computer concepts of the future

When it comes to performing a calculation destined to arrive at an exact result, humans are hopelessly inferior to the computer. In other areas, humans are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

SEMANTiCS 2019 brings together industry leaders and data scientists in Karlsruhe

29.04.2019 | Event News

Revered mathematicians and computer scientists converge with 200 young researchers in Heidelberg!

17.04.2019 | Event News

First dust conference in the Central Asian part of the earth’s dust belt

15.04.2019 | Event News

 
Latest News

Plumbene, graphene's latest cousin, realized on the 'nano water cube'

23.05.2019 | Materials Sciences

New flatland material: Physicists obtain quasi-2D gold

23.05.2019 | Materials Sciences

New Boost for ToCoTronics

23.05.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>