Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

What you see affects what you hear

04.03.2009
Understanding what a friend is saying in the hubbub of a noisy party can present a challenge – unless you can see the friend's face.

New research from Baylor College of Medicine in Houston and the City College of New York shows that the visual information you absorb when you see can improve your understanding of the spoken words by as much as sixfold.

Your brain uses the visual information derived from the person's face and lip movements to help you interpret what you hear, and this benefit increases when the sound quality rises to moderately noisy, said Dr. Wei Ji Ma, assistant professor of neuroscience at BCM and the report's lead author, in a report that appears online today in the open access journal PLoS ONE.

"Most people with normal hearing lip-read very well, even though they don't think so," said Ma. "At certain noise levels, lip-reading can increase word recognition performance from 10 to 60 percent correct."

However, when the environment is very noisy or when the voice you are trying to understand is very faint, lip-reading is difficult.

"We find that a minimum sound level is needed for lip-reading to be most effective," said Ma.

This research is the first to study word recognition in a natural setting, where people report freely what they believe is being said. Previous experiments only used limited lists of words for people to choose from.

The lip-reading data help scientists understand how the brain integrates two different kinds of stimuli to come to a conclusion.

Ma and his colleagues constructed a mathematical model that allowed them to predict how successful a person will be at integrating the visual and auditory information.

People actually combine the two stimuli close to optimally, Ma said. What they perceive depends on the reliability of the stimuli.

"Suppose you are a detective," he said. "You have two witnesses to a crime. One is very precise and believable. The other one is not as believable. You take information from both and weigh the believability of each in your determination of what happened."

In a way, lip-reading involves the same kind of integration of information in the brain, he said.

In experiments, videos of individuals were shown in which a person said a word. If the person is presented normally, the visual information provides a great benefit when it is integrated with the auditory information, especially when there is moderate background noise. Surprisingly, if the person is just a "cartoon" that does not truly mouth the word, then the visual information is still helpful, though not as much.

In another study, the person mouths one word but the audio projects another, and often the brain integrates the two stimuli into a totally different perceived word.

"The mathematical model can predict how often the person will understand the word correctly in all these contexts," Ma said.

An example of the visual and audio stimuli used in the experiment can be found at http://bme.engr.ccny.cuny.edu/faculty/parra/bayes-speech/.

Others who took part in this research include Xiang Zhou, Lars A. Ross, John J. Foxe and Lucas C. Parra of The City College of New York in New York City.

When the embargo lifts, the full report can be found at http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004638

Glenna Picton | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.bcm.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht When a fish becomes fluid
17.12.2018 | Institute of Science and Technology Austria

nachricht Some brain tumors may respond to immunotherapy, new study suggests
11.12.2018 | Columbia University Irving Medical Center

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New megalibrary approach proves useful for the rapid discovery of new materials

Northwestern discovery tool is thousands of times faster than conventional screening methods

Different eras of civilization are defined by the discovery of new materials, as new materials drive new capabilities. And yet, identifying the best material...

Im Focus: Data storage using individual molecules

Researchers from the University of Basel have reported a new method that allows the physical state of just a few atoms or molecules within a network to be controlled. It is based on the spontaneous self-organization of molecules into extensive networks with pores about one nanometer in size. In the journal ‘small’, the physicists reported on their investigations, which could be of particular importance for the development of new storage devices.

Around the world, researchers are attempting to shrink data storage devices to achieve as large a storage capacity in as small a space as possible. In almost...

Im Focus: Data use draining your battery? Tiny device to speed up memory while also saving power

The more objects we make "smart," from watches to entire buildings, the greater the need for these devices to store and retrieve massive amounts of data quickly without consuming too much power.

Millions of new memory cells could be part of a computer chip and provide that speed and energy savings, thanks to the discovery of a previously unobserved...

Im Focus: An energy-efficient way to stay warm: Sew high-tech heating patches to your clothes

Personal patches could reduce energy waste in buildings, Rutgers-led study says

What if, instead of turning up the thermostat, you could warm up with high-tech, flexible patches sewn into your clothes - while significantly reducing your...

Im Focus: Lethal combination: Drug cocktail turns off the juice to cancer cells

A widely used diabetes medication combined with an antihypertensive drug specifically inhibits tumor growth – this was discovered by researchers from the University of Basel’s Biozentrum two years ago. In a follow-up study, recently published in “Cell Reports”, the scientists report that this drug cocktail induces cancer cell death by switching off their energy supply.

The widely used anti-diabetes drug metformin not only reduces blood sugar but also has an anti-cancer effect. However, the metformin dose commonly used in the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

ICTM Conference 2019: Digitization emerges as an engineering trend for turbomachinery construction

12.12.2018 | Event News

New Plastics Economy Investor Forum - Meeting Point for Innovations

10.12.2018 | Event News

EGU 2019 meeting: Media registration now open

06.12.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

New megalibrary approach proves useful for the rapid discovery of new materials

19.12.2018 | Materials Sciences

Artificial intelligence meets materials science

19.12.2018 | Materials Sciences

Gut microbiome regulates the intestinal immune system, researchers find

19.12.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>