The studies were led by Stewart H. Mostofsky, MD, with the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore and Donald L. Gilbert, MD, MS, with Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati.
For the first study, researchers examined mirror overflow movements in 25 boys and girls between the ages of eight and 13 with ADHD and 25 boys and girls without the disorder. Mirror movements are characterized by the inability to move one side of the body without moving the other. All children were right-handed. Using video and a device that recorded finger position, the researchers measured differences in how the children tapped their fingers.
The children with ADHD experienced more mirror movements than the children without ADHD. During left-handed finger tapping, children with ADHD showed more than twice as much mirror overflow than children without ADHD. The differences were particularly prominent for boys with ADHD, who showed nearly four times as much mirror overflow than boys without ADHD on one of the two measures used in the study.
In the second study, scientists applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the motor control area of the brain in 49 children with ADHD and 49 children without ADHD, all right-handed and ages 8 to 12. TMS technology allows scientists to activate brain cells with magnetic pulses in order to measure brain activity.
The study found that the brain’s short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI), which is an important “braking mechanism” in the brain, was reduced by 40 percent in children with ADHD compared to those without the disorder. On motor development tests, those with ADHD scored nearly 60 percent worse compared to those children without ADHD. Importantly, the scientists also found that the amount of reduced inhibition in the motor area of the brain was strongly associated with the severity of ADHD symptoms reported by the parents.
“These studies are an important step toward understanding how ADHD affects communication between the brain and other parts of the body,” said Jonathan W. Mink, MD, PhD, with the University of Rochester Medical Center in New York in an accompanying editorial. Mink is also an associate editor of Neurology. “These findings show that mirror movements are likely a marker of abnormal development of motor control that improves with age and is more prominent in boys. They also provide a more specific way to measure ADHD. The hope is that, ultimately, these studies and others will guide us toward development and testing of new therapies.”
The studies were supported by the National Institutes of Health.
The American Academy of Neurology, an association of more than 22,500 neurologists and neuroscience professionals, is dedicated to promoting the highest quality patient-centered neurologic care. A neurologist is a doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system such as Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, migraine, multiple sclerosis, brain injury, Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy.
For more information about the American Academy of Neurology, visit http://www.aan.com.VIDEO: http://www.youtube.com/AANChannel
Rachel L. Seroka | American Academy of Neurology
Study relating to materials testing Detecting damages in non-magnetic steel through magnetism
23.07.2018 | Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Innovative genetic tests for children with developmental disorders and epilepsy
11.07.2018 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
New design tool automatically creates nanostructure 3D-print templates for user-given colors
Scientists present work at prestigious SIGGRAPH conference
Most of the objects we see are colored by pigments, but using pigments has disadvantages: such colors can fade, industrial pigments are often toxic, and...
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers" -- very low frequency packets...
Scientists develop first tool to use machine learning methods to compute flow around interactively designable 3D objects. Tool will be presented at this year’s prestigious SIGGRAPH conference.
When engineers or designers want to test the aerodynamic properties of the newly designed shape of a car, airplane, or other object, they would normally model...
Researchers from TU Graz and their industry partners have unveiled a world first: the prototype of a robot-controlled, high-speed combined charging system (CCS) for electric vehicles that enables series charging of cars in various parking positions.
Global demand for electric vehicles is forecast to rise sharply: by 2025, the number of new vehicle registrations is expected to reach 25 million per year....
Proteins must be folded correctly to fulfill their molecular functions in cells. Molecular assistants called chaperones help proteins exploit their inbuilt folding potential and reach the correct three-dimensional structure. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) have demonstrated that actin, the most abundant protein in higher developed cells, does not have the inbuilt potential to fold and instead requires special assistance to fold into its active state. The chaperone TRiC uses a previously undescribed mechanism to perform actin folding. The study was recently published in the journal Cell.
Actin is the most abundant protein in highly developed cells and has diverse functions in processes like cell stabilization, cell division and muscle...
17.08.2018 | Event News
08.08.2018 | Event News
27.07.2018 | Event News
17.08.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
17.08.2018 | Information Technology
17.08.2018 | Life Sciences