Health and Medicine

This subject area encompasses research and studies in the field of human medicine.

Among the wide-ranging list of topics covered here are anesthesiology, anatomy, surgery, human genetics, hygiene and environmental medicine, internal medicine, neurology, pharmacology, physiology, urology and dental medicine.

Abstaining Smokers Fare Better After Surgery

Authors of a study in this week’s issue of THE LANCET conclude that smokers should avoid smoking for around two months before surgery to reduce the risk of cardiovascular or wound-healing complications.

Smokers are at higher risk of cardiopulmonary and wound-related postoperative complications than non-smokers due to the adverse effects of tobacco smoke on the body’s cardiopulmonary function and immune system. Ann Moller and colleagues from Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmar

Results for New Oxazolidinone Demonstrate Potency Against Superbugs

Results for New Oxazolidinone Demonstrate Potency Against Gram-Positive Pathogens, including Superbugs

Unique compound AZD2563 shows promise for once-daily dosing

Chicago, IL World-wide data presented at the 41st Interscience Congress on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC) show that AstraZeneca`s new oxazolidinone (AZD2563) is active against Gram-positive bacteria, including multi-drug resistant strains, and may have the added convenience of potential once-daily administra

Cannabis Hampers Baby Growth

Researchers at the University of Bristol have found that pregnant women who frequently use cannabis during their pregnancy may affect the growth of their unborn child. With the recent change in status of cannabis from a class A to class B drug, it is important to assess whether it is entirely safe for use during pregnancy. A marker which often indicates an effect on the unborn child is the baby`s weight at birth.

The findings were announced by Kate Northstone, from the Children of the 90s p

Bugs dress salad

Harmful bugs may lurk within leaves.

Healthy salad greens could be contaminated with bacteria that cause food poisoning, despite thorough rinsing. New research shows that harmful bugs can enter lettuce plants through its roots and end up in the edible leaves 1 .

Although uncommon, food poisoning caused by eating plants can occur. Vegetables that are fertilized with animal manure, which can contain pathogens, pose the biggest threat. Raw salad vegetables are n

Brain Imaging Study Reveals Placebo’s Effect

Scientists have recognized for some time that people suffering from depression often experience a substantial reduction in symptoms when given a placebo. In fact, this observation has led some researchers to propose that up to 75 percent of the apparent efficacy of antidepressant medicine may actually be attributable to the placebo effect. Determining the cause of a patient’s improvement under such circumstances is no easy task. But the results of a new study may shed light on the matter. According

Blocking HIV Before It Can Infect Any Normal Cells

A fast, sensitive laboratory test that measures the molecular components involved during the critical moment when HIV infects a normal cell has been developed.
The advance was made by researchers in the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine and VA San Diego Healthcare System.

Described in the December 2001 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry (JBC), the test makes it possible to study and design new compounds to block the action of these molecular componen

Transgenic Mice Produce Malaria Vaccine Proteins in Their Milk

A vaccine against one of the world’s leading killers could one day be manufactured by livestock, researchers report. According to a study released today by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, scientists have developed mice that secrete malaria vaccine proteins into their milk. The purified experimental vaccine protected 80 percent of monkeys subsequently exposed to a lethal dose of the malarial parasite.

Anthony Stowers and Louis Miller of the National Institute of All

Taking up drinking in middle age cuts heart disease risk but increases chances of dying from other causes

Taking up regular drinking in middle age might cut the risk of heart disease, finds research in Heart. But the catch is, it increases the risk of dying from something else.

The researchers studied 7735 men from general practices in 24 British towns. The men were screened for heart disease between 1978 and 1980 when they were aged between 40 and 59. And they were asked about lifestyle, including smoking and drinking, and their medical history. Five years later, 7157 of them completed question

New image analysis techniques to monitor how breast tumours respond to drugs

New techniques that might allow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to be used to give doctors subtle information about a tumour’s physiology and how it reacts to drug therapy are being developed.

The work is being carried out by doctors and medical physicists at the University of Aberdeen, with funding from the Swindon based Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

Doctors treating cancerous tumours with drugs need to know quickly if the drug is having the desired effect t

Study Finds Smoking in Movies Tied to Adolescent Tobacco Use

According to a new study, when it comes to smoking, adolescents may be emulating the movie stars they see on the big screen. Writing in the December 15 issue of the British Medical Journal, researchers at Dartmouth College report that they have found a link between tobacco use in movies and smoking amongst young people.

James D. Sargent and colleagues questioned 4,919 New England middle school students between the ages of nine and 15 about their smoking habits and movies they had seen. “For

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