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Overview of all focus news of the innovations-report

Overview of the focus news:

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Im Focus: A bit of a stretch... material that thickens as it's pulled

Scientists have discovered the first synthetic material that becomes thicker - at the molecular level - as it is stretched.

Researchers led by Dr Devesh Mistry from the University of Leeds discovered a new non-porous material that has unique and inherent "auxetic" stretching...

Im Focus: The force of the vacuum

Scientists from the Theory Department of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) in Hamburg have shown through theoretical calculations and computer simulations that the force between electrons and lattice distortions in an atomically thin two-dimensional superconductor can be controlled with virtual photons. This could aid the development of new superconductors for energy-saving devices and many other technical applications.

The vacuum is not empty. It may sound like magic to laypeople but it has occupied physicists since the birth of quantum mechanics.

Im Focus: A golden age for particle analysis

Process engineers at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have developed a method which allows the size and shape of nanoparticles in dispersions to be determined considerably quicker than ever before. Based on gold nanorods, they demonstrated how length and diameter distributions can be measured accurately in just one step instead of the complicated series of electron microscopic images which have been needed up until now. Nanoparticles from precious metals are used, for example, as catalysts and contrast agents for diagnosing cancer. The results have been published in the renowned journal Nature Communications (doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07366-9).

Even in the Middle Ages, gold particles were used to create vibrant red and blue colours, for example to illustrate biblical scenes in stained glass windows....

Im Focus: Successful second round of experiments with Wendelstein 7-X

The experiments conducted from July until November at the Wendelstein 7-X fusion device at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in Greifswald have achieved higher values for the density and the energy content of the plasma and long discharge times of up to 100 seconds – record results for devices of the stellarator type. Meanwhile, the next round of the step-by-step upgrading of Wendelstein 7-X has begun. It is to equip the device for greater heating power and longer discharges. Wendelstein 7-X, the world’s largest fusion device of the stellarator type, is to investigate the suitability of this configuration for use in a power plant.

During the course of the step-by-step upgrading of Wendelstein 7-X, the plasma vessel was fitted with inner cladding since September of last year.

Im Focus: New process discovered: Mere sunlight can be used to eradicate pollutants in water

Advances in environmental technology: You don’t need complex filters and laser systems to destroy persistent pollutants in water. Chemists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) have developed a new process that works using mere sunlight. The process is so simple that it can even be conducted outdoors under the most basic conditions. The chemists present their research in the journal “Chemistry - a European Journal”.

The chemists at MLU rely on electrons moving freely in water, so-called hydrated electrons, to degrade dissolved pollutants.

Im Focus: Ultracold quantum mix

The experimental investigation of ultracold quantum matter makes it possible to study quantum mechanical phenomena that are otherwise hardly accessible. A team led by the Innsbruck physicist Francesca Ferlaino has now succeeded for the first time in mixing quantum gases of the strongly magnetic elements Erbium and Dysprosium and creating a dipolar quantum mixture.

Only a few years ago it seemed unfeasible to extend the techniques of atom manipulation and deep cooling in the ultracold regime to many-valence-electron...

Im Focus: First diode for magnetic fields

Innsbruck quantum physicists have constructed a diode for magnetic fields and then tested it in the laboratory. The device, developed by the research groups led by the theorist Oriol Romero-Isart and the experimental physicist Gerhard Kirchmair, could open up a number of new applications.

Electric diodes are essential electronic components that conduct electricity in one direction but prevent conduction in the opposite one. They are found at the...

Im Focus: Nonstop Tranport of Cargo in Nanomachines

Max Planck researchers revel the nano-structure of molecular trains and the reason for smooth transport in cellular antennas.

Moving around, sensing the extracellular environment, and signaling to other cells are important for a cell to function properly. Responsible for those tasks...

Im Focus: UNH scientists help provide first-ever views of elusive energy explosion

Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have captured a difficult-to-view singular event involving "magnetic reconnection"--the process by which sparse particles and energy around Earth collide producing a quick but mighty explosion--in the Earth's magnetotail, the magnetic environment that trails behind the planet.

Magnetic reconnection has remained a bit of a mystery to scientists. They know it exists and have documented the effects that the energy explosions can...

Im Focus: A Chip with Blood Vessels

Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way.

Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. Producing artificial tissue, however, permeated by fine blood vessels, is a much more...

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