Studies and analyses are vital to progress and innovation and are the only way to empirically verify theories.
Not all fields of science are dependent on empirical studies and analyses to verify a thesis. Mathematics, theology, philosophy and law are examples of fields that revolve within a stand-alone world in which new findings are derived by means of logical operations consisting of axioms, postulates or articles of faith (theology) that need not be proven true or accurate through empirical studies or analyses. Although these subjects are indispensable when it comes to basic research, by themselves they don't yield technical advances.
Empirical scientific approaches are diametrically opposed to these fields however. In this case, new theories are developed based on thought processes, observations and speculation. Ensuring that this knowledge has actual scientific relevance requires that it undergo an empirical evaluation however. Researchers rely on studies and analyses to compare these theses with real observations. New scientific knowledge is considered valid only after empirical studies and analyses show that theory and reality coincide. In the process it is imperative that the studies and analyses always produce the same result under the same experiment structure. Only then it is empirically proven that the result actually behaves in line with the theory.
The validation process for new findings based on studies and analyses as described above is in no way limited to natural and engineering sciences such as physics, biology, chemistry, medicine and health, machine engineering or aero and space engineering. In fields such as the social sciences, studies and analyses are also indispensable for empirically proving the accuracy of assumptions and conclusions. Sociology uses empirical-based statistics, studies and analyses to determine if statements about the migration behavior of specific population groups is accurate for instance. The field of psychology also relies on analyses and studies to empirically validate the assumptions of certain behavior patterns.
Before the Enlightenment changed our way of thinking, universities tended to postulate and speculate more than perform scientific research. Innovations therefore were apt be accidental. Once researchers were convinced that scientific results were only possible through the use of empirical studies and analysis, the groundwork was laid for the rapid advances in science that followed. Empirical studies and analyses range from simple experiments, particularly by measuring, weighing and counting, to extremely complex processes that require an enormous amount of time and money. Determining the validity of scientific theories using empirical assurances is one of the prerequisites for implementing these theories in practice. When a specific fact has been confirmed and documented based on studies and analyses, the assumption is that it will remain a fact in the future under the same premises. Only then does it make sense to develop new technologies based on this knowledge, because this provides sufficient proof of the assumption that they always function in the same manner.
Gregor Mendel's studies and analyses on genetics provided empirical proof of his theories of heredity, which then led to modern plant breeding and the establishment of food security for millions of people. The effectiveness of penicillin, another invaluable innovation for mankind, was empirically proven by Alexander Fleming through medical studies and analyses.
innovations-report maintains a wealth of in-depth studies and analyses from a variety of subject areas including business and finance, medicine and ph
The EU wants to help European SMEs to catch up with smart industry. To provide specific support, the EU has initiated a pan-European survey on “Smart Engineering”. The research project’s objective is to identify the actual situation of European companies on their way towards Industry 4.0, to sum up all national funding initiatives and to determine the actual demand of SMEs. The project is jointly conducted by 15 research institutions and companies from seven countries – among them the Institut für Integrierte Produktion Hannover (IPH).
Smart engineering and networked systems revolutionize production industry. Machines learn how to intercommunicate and autonomously keep supplies coming, as...30.03.2017 | Read more
Fertilizers, animal waste, changes to atmospheric chemistry and warming soils all tied to increased ammonia over US, Europe, China and India
The first global, long-term satellite study of airborne ammonia gas has revealed "hotspots" of the pollutant over four of the world's most productive...17.03.2017 | Read more
A new study led by the German Institute of Human Nutrition (DIfE), a partner of the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), shows that gliptins – well known from diabetes treatment – may oppose the detrimental effects of fat cell accumulation in the bone marrow to improve bone healing in older, overweight patients. The research team led by stem cell researchers Thomas H. Ambrosi and Tim J. Schulz has now published its findings in Cell Stem Cell (Ambrosi et al. 2017; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2017.02.009).
It is well established that aging promotes the development of obesity. The aging process is not only accompanied by larger fat depots but also by excessive...17.03.2017 | Read more
People with social anxiety avoid situations in which they are exposed to judgment by others. Those affected also lead a withdrawn life. Around one in ten people is affected by this anxiety disorder over the course of their life.
People with social anxiety avoid situations in which they are exposed to judgment by others. Those affected also lead a withdrawn life. Around one in ten...10.03.2017 | Read more
Study by the Universities of Bonn and Bamberg: consumption when showering can be reduced by 22 percent
Those who take long showers use a great deal of water and energy. Yet people who enjoy taking long showers do not usually realize to what extent they are...08.02.2017 | Read more
Teenagers are driven to seek new experiences: Adolescents are more likely to ignore information that could prompt them to rethink risky decisions. This may explain why information campaigns on risky behaviors such as drug abuse tend to have only limited success. These are the conclusions of a study conducted by researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, which has been published in the journal Scientific Reports.
Reckless driving, binge drinking, drug taking—it is well known that adolescents are more likely than adults to engage in risky and impulsive behavior. A study...19.01.2017 | Read more
You can pretty much put a mark in your calendar for when the annual flu epidemic begins. Using 20,000 virus samples and weather statistics, researchers have now discovered more details about how outdoor temperature and flu outbreaks are linked.
“According to our calculations, a cold week with an average temperature below zero degree Celsius precedes the start of the flu epidemic” says Nicklas Sundell,...11.01.2017 | Read more
Due to rapid urban area expansion, some 300,000 square kilometers of particularly fertile cropland will be lost by the year 2030. That area of land—almost the size of Germany—is estimated to have accounted for nearly four per cent of the worldwide cultivation of food crops in the year 2000. These are results of a study led by the Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC). A comparison underlines the relevance: the food produced on that area would be enough to provide more than 300 million people with 2,500 calories-per-day—for an entire year.
The MCC study, entitled “Future urban land expansion and implications for global croplands” and authored by Christopher Bren d’Amour and Felix Creutzig...27.12.2016 | Read more
Companies are aware of the potential of Big Data in a digitized world. Which benefits are they actually reaping today? How important are smart data transformation projects at the moment? To better understand the present and future value of Big Data and the factors determining the success of smart data transformation projects, Infosys Consulting and Fraunhofer FIT's Project Group Business & Information Systems Engineering surveyed corporate decision-makers.
In the digital age, business organizations can benefit from exploiting internal as well as external data. Smart utilization of insights from analyzing and...02.12.2016 | Read more
Powerful new model indicates that current pollution standards may be inadequate to ward off worsening algae blooms
New research suggests that Lake Champlain may be more susceptible to damage from climate change than was previously understood--and that, therefore, the rules...18.11.2016 | Read more
Engineers at the University of Tokyo continually pioneer new ways to improve battery technology. Professor Atsuo Yamada and his team recently developed a...
With a quantum coprocessor in the cloud, physicists from Innsbruck, Austria, open the door to the simulation of previously unsolvable problems in chemistry, materials research or high-energy physics. The research groups led by Rainer Blatt and Peter Zoller report in the journal Nature how they simulated particle physics phenomena on 20 quantum bits and how the quantum simulator self-verified the result for the first time.
Many scientists are currently working on investigating how quantum advantage can be exploited on hardware already available today. Three years ago, physicists...
'Quantum technologies' utilise the unique phenomena of quantum superposition and entanglement to encode and process information, with potentially profound benefits to a wide range of information technologies from communications to sensing and computing.
However a major challenge in developing these technologies is that the quantum phenomena are very fragile, and only a handful of physical systems have been...
Working group led by physicist Professor Ulrich Nowak at the University of Konstanz, in collaboration with a team of physicists from Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, demonstrates how skyrmions can be used for the computer concepts of the future
When it comes to performing a calculation destined to arrive at an exact result, humans are hopelessly inferior to the computer. In other areas, humans are...
Scientists develop a molecular recording tool that enables in vivo lineage tracing of embryonic cells
The beginning of new life starts with a fascinating process: A single cell gives rise to progenitor cells that eventually differentiate into the three germ...
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