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Scientific research using studies and analyses

Studies and analyses are vital to progress and innovation and are the only way to empirically verify theories.

Science and empirical studies and analyses

Not all fields of science are dependent on empirical studies and analyses to verify a thesis. Mathematics, theology, philosophy and law are examples of fields that revolve within a stand-alone world in which new findings are derived by means of logical operations consisting of axioms, postulates or articles of faith (theology) that need not be proven true or accurate through empirical studies or analyses. Although these subjects are indispensable when it comes to basic research, by themselves they don't yield technical advances.

Empirical scientific approaches are diametrically opposed to these fields however. In this case, new theories are developed based on thought processes, observations and speculation. Ensuring that this knowledge has actual scientific relevance requires that it undergo an empirical evaluation however. Researchers rely on studies and analyses to compare these theses with real observations. New scientific knowledge is considered valid only after empirical studies and analyses show that theory and reality coincide. In the process it is imperative that the studies and analyses always produce the same result under the same experiment structure. Only then it is empirically proven that the result actually behaves in line with the theory.

Using empirical studies and analyses beyond the natural sciences and engineering

The validation process for new findings based on studies and analyses as described above is in no way limited to natural and engineering sciences such as physics, biology, chemistry, medicine and health, machine engineering or aero and space engineering. In fields such as the social sciences, studies and analyses are also indispensable for empirically proving the accuracy of assumptions and conclusions. Sociology uses empirical-based statistics, studies and analyses to determine if statements about the migration behavior of specific population groups is accurate for instance. The field of psychology also relies on analyses and studies to empirically validate the assumptions of certain behavior patterns.

Progress and innovation through empirical studies and analyses

Before the Enlightenment changed our way of thinking, universities tended to postulate and speculate more than perform scientific research. Innovations therefore were apt be accidental. Once researchers were convinced that scientific results were only possible through the use of empirical studies and analysis, the groundwork was laid for the rapid advances in science that followed. Empirical studies and analyses range from simple experiments, particularly by measuring, weighing and counting, to extremely complex processes that require an enormous amount of time and money. Determining the validity of scientific theories using empirical assurances is one of the prerequisites for implementing these theories in practice. When a specific fact has been confirmed and documented based on studies and analyses, the assumption is that it will remain a fact in the future under the same premises. Only then does it make sense to develop new technologies based on this knowledge, because this provides sufficient proof of the assumption that they always function in the same manner.

Two historical examples of progress based on studies and analyses

Gregor Mendel's studies and analyses on genetics provided empirical proof of his theories of heredity, which then led to modern plant breeding and the establishment of food security for millions of people. The effectiveness of penicillin, another invaluable innovation for mankind, was empirically proven by Alexander Fleming through medical studies and analyses.

Studies and Analyses

innovations-report maintains a wealth of in-depth studies and analyses from a variety of subject areas including business and finance, medicine and ph

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New 3D imaging and visualization technique provides detailed views of muscle architecture

The University of Missouri study has wide ranging implications, including teaching animal and human surgeons

A new three-dimensional model of the skeletal muscles responsible for bird flight provides the most comprehensive and detailed picture of anatomy to date.

02.05.2019 | nachricht Read more

Graphene gives a tremendous boost to future terahertz cameras

A study in Nano Letters reports on the development of a graphene-enabled detector for terahertz light that is faster and more sensitive than existing room-temperature technologies

Detecting terahertz (THz) light is extremely useful for two main reasons:

16.04.2019 | nachricht Read more

Mount Kilimanjaro: Ecosystems in Global Change

Land use in tropical mountain regions leads to considerable changes of biodiversity and ecological functions. The intensity of such changes is greatly affected by the climate.

2019 marks the 250th anniversary of Alexander von Humboldt. He was one of the first naturalists to document the distribution and adaptation of species on...

28.03.2019 | nachricht Read more

Deep Brain Stimulation Provides Sustained Relief for Severe Depression

World’s largest study of deep brain stimulation in the brain’s reward system / Study with 16 participants with previously treatment-resistant depression shows excellent results over one year / Results published in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology

Patients suffering from severe, treatment-resistant depression can benefit not only acutely but also the long-term from deep brain stimulation, as researchers...

19.03.2019 | nachricht Read more

AI study of risk factors in type 1 diabetes

In combination with conventional statistical methods, artificial intelligence (AI) has now been used in a study of risk factors in type 1 diabetes. The objective was to identify the most important indicators of elevated risk for cardiovascular disease and death.

“What’s unique about this study is that we’ve included machine learning analyses — that is, algorithms for AI — to assess strength of association for...

06.03.2019 | nachricht Read more

Rising CO2 has unforeseen strong impact on Arctic plant productivity

In a new study, a team of researchers around Alexander Winkler and Prof Victor Brovkin from the department “The Land in the Earth system” at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) show that most Earth system models (ESM) underestimate the response of Arctic plant productivity to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration.

These models, which serve as the scientific basis for the IPCC Assessment Reports, likely also underestimate future carbon uptake by photosynthesis - a key...

21.02.2019 | nachricht Read more

Scientists Create New Map of Brain’s Immune System

Versatile immune cells in the brain serve diverse functions / Changes in course of multiple sclerosis mapped for first time / Study in journal Nature refutes textbook opinion

A team of researchers under the direction of the Medical Center – University of Freiburg has created an entirely new map of the brain’s own immune system in...

18.02.2019 | nachricht Read more

Forest Bird Community is endangered in South America

Study of the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin shows birds dependency of high woody cover levels in the Gran Chaco

Only 7 percent of Argentina’s largest tropical dry forest presents woody cover levels above the threshold to host the forest bird community of the dry Chaco. A...

12.02.2019 | nachricht Read more

Even psychological placebos have an effect

Placebo effects do not only occur in medical treatment – placebos can also work when psychological effects are attributed to them. Researchers from the University of Basel’s Faculty of Psychology reported these findings in the journal Scientific Reports, based on three studies with over 400 participants.

Psychotherapy and placebos are both psychological interventions that not only have comparable effects, but that are also based on very similar mechanisms. Both...

05.02.2019 | nachricht Read more

Rainfall extremes are connected across continents: Nature study

Extreme rainfall events in one city or region are connected to the same kind of events thousands of kilometers away, an international team of experts finds in a study now published in one of the world’s leading scientific journals, Nature. They discovered a global connection pattern of extreme rainfall – this could eventually improve weather forecasts and hence help to limit damages and protect people. Extreme rainfall events are on the rise due to human-caused climate change, which makes the study even more relevant.

The researchers developed a new method rooted in complex systems science to analyze satellite data. The revealed extreme rainfall patterns are likely linked to...

31.01.2019 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Researchers watch quantum knots untie

After first reporting the existence of quantum knots, Aalto University & Amherst College researchers now report how the knots behave

A quantum gas can be tied into knots using magnetic fields. Our researchers were the first to produce these knots as part of a collaboration between Aalto...

Im Focus: A cavity leads to a strong interaction between light and matter

Researchers have succeeded in creating an efficient quantum-mechanical light-matter interface using a microscopic cavity. Within this cavity, a single photon is emitted and absorbed up to 10 times by an artificial atom. This opens up new prospects for quantum technology, report physicists at the University of Basel and Ruhr-University Bochum in the journal Nature.

Quantum physics describes photons as light particles. Achieving an interaction between a single photon and a single atom is a huge challenge due to the tiny...

Im Focus: Solving the mystery of quantum light in thin layers

A very special kind of light is emitted by tungsten diselenide layers. The reason for this has been unclear. Now an explanation has been found at TU Wien (Vienna)

It is an exotic phenomenon that nobody was able to explain for years: when energy is supplied to a thin layer of the material tungsten diselenide, it begins to...

Im Focus: An ultrafast glimpse of the photochemistry of the atmosphere

Researchers at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have explored the initial consequences of the interaction of light with molecules on the surface of nanoscopic aerosols.

The nanocosmos is constantly in motion. All natural processes are ultimately determined by the interplay between radiation and matter. Light strikes particles...

Im Focus: Shaping nanoparticles for improved quantum information technology

Particles that are mere nanometers in size are at the forefront of scientific research today. They come in many different shapes: rods, spheres, cubes, vesicles, S-shaped worms and even donut-like rings. What makes them worthy of scientific study is that, being so tiny, they exhibit quantum mechanical properties not possible with larger objects.

Researchers at the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility located at DOE's Argonne National...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

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