Studies and analyses are vital to progress and innovation and are the only way to empirically verify theories.
Not all fields of science are dependent on empirical studies and analyses to verify a thesis. Mathematics, theology, philosophy and law are examples of fields that revolve within a stand-alone world in which new findings are derived by means of logical operations consisting of axioms, postulates or articles of faith (theology) that need not be proven true or accurate through empirical studies or analyses. Although these subjects are indispensable when it comes to basic research, by themselves they don't yield technical advances.
Empirical scientific approaches are diametrically opposed to these fields however. In this case, new theories are developed based on thought processes, observations and speculation. Ensuring that this knowledge has actual scientific relevance requires that it undergo an empirical evaluation however. Researchers rely on studies and analyses to compare these theses with real observations. New scientific knowledge is considered valid only after empirical studies and analyses show that theory and reality coincide. In the process it is imperative that the studies and analyses always produce the same result under the same experiment structure. Only then it is empirically proven that the result actually behaves in line with the theory.
The validation process for new findings based on studies and analyses as described above is in no way limited to natural and engineering sciences such as physics, biology, chemistry, medicine and health, machine engineering or aero and space engineering. In fields such as the social sciences, studies and analyses are also indispensable for empirically proving the accuracy of assumptions and conclusions. Sociology uses empirical-based statistics, studies and analyses to determine if statements about the migration behavior of specific population groups is accurate for instance. The field of psychology also relies on analyses and studies to empirically validate the assumptions of certain behavior patterns.
Before the Enlightenment changed our way of thinking, universities tended to postulate and speculate more than perform scientific research. Innovations therefore were apt be accidental. Once researchers were convinced that scientific results were only possible through the use of empirical studies and analysis, the groundwork was laid for the rapid advances in science that followed. Empirical studies and analyses range from simple experiments, particularly by measuring, weighing and counting, to extremely complex processes that require an enormous amount of time and money. Determining the validity of scientific theories using empirical assurances is one of the prerequisites for implementing these theories in practice. When a specific fact has been confirmed and documented based on studies and analyses, the assumption is that it will remain a fact in the future under the same premises. Only then does it make sense to develop new technologies based on this knowledge, because this provides sufficient proof of the assumption that they always function in the same manner.
Gregor Mendel's studies and analyses on genetics provided empirical proof of his theories of heredity, which then led to modern plant breeding and the establishment of food security for millions of people. The effectiveness of penicillin, another invaluable innovation for mankind, was empirically proven by Alexander Fleming through medical studies and analyses.
innovations-report maintains a wealth of in-depth studies and analyses from a variety of subject areas including business and finance, medicine and ph
Researchers at the Cells-in-Motion Cluster of Excellence at Münster University have discovered that curvatures of cell membranes trigger a self-organising system. As a result, cells can move in the same direction over a longer distance, forming search patterns. The study has been published in the journal “Nature Physics”.
When an individual cell is placed on a level surface, it does not keep still, but starts moving. This phenomenon was observed by the British cell biologist...07.05.2019 | Read more
This precise delivery method could one day advance brain cancer therapies in people
In experiments in mice, Johns Hopkins researchers say they have developed a technique that facilitates the precise placement of cancer drugs at their intended...02.05.2019 | Read more
The University of Missouri study has wide ranging implications, including teaching animal and human surgeons
A new three-dimensional model of the skeletal muscles responsible for bird flight provides the most comprehensive and detailed picture of anatomy to date.02.05.2019 | Read more
A study in Nano Letters reports on the development of a graphene-enabled detector for terahertz light that is faster and more sensitive than existing room-temperature technologies
Detecting terahertz (THz) light is extremely useful for two main reasons:16.04.2019 | Read more
Land use in tropical mountain regions leads to considerable changes of biodiversity and ecological functions. The intensity of such changes is greatly affected by the climate.
2019 marks the 250th anniversary of Alexander von Humboldt. He was one of the first naturalists to document the distribution and adaptation of species on...28.03.2019 | Read more
World’s largest study of deep brain stimulation in the brain’s reward system / Study with 16 participants with previously treatment-resistant depression shows excellent results over one year / Results published in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology
Patients suffering from severe, treatment-resistant depression can benefit not only acutely but also the long-term from deep brain stimulation, as researchers...19.03.2019 | Read more
In combination with conventional statistical methods, artificial intelligence (AI) has now been used in a study of risk factors in type 1 diabetes. The objective was to identify the most important indicators of elevated risk for cardiovascular disease and death.
“What’s unique about this study is that we’ve included machine learning analyses — that is, algorithms for AI — to assess strength of association for...06.03.2019 | Read more
In a new study, a team of researchers around Alexander Winkler and Prof Victor Brovkin from the department “The Land in the Earth system” at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) show that most Earth system models (ESM) underestimate the response of Arctic plant productivity to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration.
These models, which serve as the scientific basis for the IPCC Assessment Reports, likely also underestimate future carbon uptake by photosynthesis - a key...21.02.2019 | Read more
Versatile immune cells in the brain serve diverse functions / Changes in course of multiple sclerosis mapped for first time / Study in journal Nature refutes textbook opinion
A team of researchers under the direction of the Medical Center – University of Freiburg has created an entirely new map of the brain’s own immune system in...18.02.2019 | Read more
Study of the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin shows birds dependency of high woody cover levels in the Gran Chaco
Only 7 percent of Argentina’s largest tropical dry forest presents woody cover levels above the threshold to host the forest bird community of the dry Chaco. A...12.02.2019 | Read more
A new assessment of NASA's record of global temperatures revealed that the agency's estimate of Earth's long-term temperature rise in recent decades is accurate to within less than a tenth of a degree Fahrenheit, providing confidence that past and future research is correctly capturing rising surface temperatures.
The most complete assessment ever of statistical uncertainty within the GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP) data product shows that the annual values...
Physicists at the University of Basel are able to show for the first time how a single electron looks in an artificial atom. A newly developed method enables them to show the probability of an electron being present in a space. This allows improved control of electron spins, which could serve as the smallest information unit in a future quantum computer. The experiments were published in Physical Review Letters and the related theory in Physical Review B.
The spin of an electron is a promising candidate for use as the smallest information unit (qubit) of a quantum computer. Controlling and switching this spin or...
Engineers at the University of Tokyo continually pioneer new ways to improve battery technology. Professor Atsuo Yamada and his team recently developed a...
With a quantum coprocessor in the cloud, physicists from Innsbruck, Austria, open the door to the simulation of previously unsolvable problems in chemistry, materials research or high-energy physics. The research groups led by Rainer Blatt and Peter Zoller report in the journal Nature how they simulated particle physics phenomena on 20 quantum bits and how the quantum simulator self-verified the result for the first time.
Many scientists are currently working on investigating how quantum advantage can be exploited on hardware already available today. Three years ago, physicists...
'Quantum technologies' utilise the unique phenomena of quantum superposition and entanglement to encode and process information, with potentially profound benefits to a wide range of information technologies from communications to sensing and computing.
However a major challenge in developing these technologies is that the quantum phenomena are very fragile, and only a handful of physical systems have been...
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24.05.2019 | Life Sciences