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What is process technology?

Process technology is when a product is manufactured from a raw material by using chemical, biological or physical processes.

Process technology can be viewed as the time between the production of a raw material and the manufacture of a product. The number of processes that are involved plays no role here. A good example is the manufacture of various metals from iron ore. Or petroleum, which has to be processed so that various end products can be manufactured using process technology. Process technology uses processes to modify more than just raw materials. This can include recyclable materials for instance. Especially in today's "green environment",process technology is utilized to process renewable raw materials , or bioenergy as it's called. This can involve different grains and other raw materials such as rape seed, from which bioenergy can be produced through various processes.

There is more than one process technology

Process technology is not limited to a single process. It can be classified into five different process technologies, all of which involve their own process. First, there is thermal process technology , which deals with distillation. In contrast to thermal process technology, chemical process technology relies on chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Electrochemical process technology utilizes electrochemical processes such as the synthesis of various chemicals. Process technologies based solely on biological processes focus more on the use of bacteria, fungi or yeast.

Every process technology brings advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the process technology must be selected on a case by case basis. Companies frequently utilize various process technologies to achieve the optimum result.

Hydrolysis in chemicals and industry

Hydrolysis uses a chemical process to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrolysis also involves the chemical separation of crystallization water. The opposite of hydrolysis is dehydration synthesis, which as the term implies involves the splitting of hydrogen instead of water.

How does hydrolysis work?

The application of phosphoric or sulfuric acid as catalysts in hydrolysis causes alcohols to react for instance. The water then separates from the alcohol through the hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis can also be induced by using zinc chloride. Viewed on a large-scale, hydrolysis can also be activated at a specific pressure, which triggers the hydrolysis during the vapor phase. Alcohols frequently react with one another during hydrolysis. This hydrolysis process creates one molecule from two molecules of ethanol alcohol during the vapor phase at a temperature of 260°C. All of this can be triggered through hydrolysis.

What else can be produced through hydrolysis?

### invalid font number 31506 In addition to acetic anhydride, which is produced by hydrolyzing acetic acid, hydrolysis is also used to produce phthalicanhydride from phthalic acid. These processes should be carried out only by trained chemists and physicists. Some processes are extremely complex and can trigger various side effects if carried out improperly. If the human body is exposed to excessive levels of acid during a process, it can result in damage to the respiratory tract.

Hydrolysis and process technology work hand in hand. A wide range of industries rely on hydrolysis for producing a variety of materials, which makes hydrolysis ideally suited for manufacturing processes.

Process Engineering

This special field revolves around processes for modifying material properties (milling, cooling), composition (filtration, distillation) and type (oxidation, hydration).

Valuable information is available on a broad range of technologies including material separation, laser processes, measuring techniques and robot engineering in addition to testing methods and coating and materials analysis processes.

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Using optical fiber to generate a two-micron laser

Lasers with a wavelength of two microns could move the boundaries of surgery and molecule detection. Researchers at EPFL have managed to generate such lasers using a simple and inexpensive method

In recent years, two-micron lasers (0.002 millimetre) have been of growing interest among researchers. In the areas of surgery and molecule detection, for...

09.10.2015 | nachricht Read more

Water pathways make fuel cells more efficient

Researchers from the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) have developed a coating technique in the laboratory that could raise the efficiency of fuel cells. The PSI scientists have already applied to patent the technique, which is suitable for mass production.

Researchers from the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) have developed a coating technique in the laboratory that could raise the efficiency of fuel cells. Fuel...

24.09.2015 | nachricht Read more

Infrared heat helps to get a good grip

Did you know that Infrared makes the handle of watering cans more comfortable?

Steering wheels, watering cans and handles shall have a good grip. On no account must they have sharp edges. However, sharp burrs cannot always be avoided when...

22.09.2015 | nachricht Read more

Lighter with Laser Welding

For a definitive breakthrough of lightweight materials in the automotive industry, new processes for manufacturing, testing and measuring are necessary. For this, steel-aluminum hybrid welds are of great interest, since they can be used for load-adapted, and at the same time lightweight components. Within the project LaserLeichter (Laser Lighter), the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) is currently developing a laser welding process for joining three-dimensional structures made of steel and aluminum in a hybrid design.

One of the challenges in welding steel with aluminum is to avoid hard and brittle intermetallic phases in the welding seam. These phases can occur easily,...

03.09.2015 | nachricht Read more

Gluing with the Laser

Natural stone like marble or granite are processed with saw blades with hard-wearing, diamond cutting segments. When these are damaged or worn, the cutting segments have to be replaced. Usually, the whole saw blade is then sent to a repair shop. 

The Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Institut für Werkzeugforschung und Werkstoffe (IFW) in Remscheid have now developed a mobile, laser-based process...

30.06.2015 | nachricht Read more

Innovative Modular Process Makes Plastic Film Coating Highly Efficient

The multiTask joint project funded by the Saxon Ministry of Science and Fine Arts (SMWK) and the European Fund for Regional Development (EFRE) was successfully completed. Scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, ISA Installations-, Steuerungs- und Automatisierungs GmbH and VTD Vakuumtechnik Dresden GmbH laid down the foundations of a new vacuum coating process for plastic films.

Plastic films serve many purposes in everyday life. They are used for packaging food, as substrates for flexible solar cells, even as decorative films for...

09.06.2015 | nachricht Read more

Laser technology advances microchip production*

A new process for cutting silicon wafers could streamline the production of smaller and more powerful microchips for electronic devices.

Electronic chips are built on small pieces of silicon that are cut from silicon sheets, called wafers, in a process known as dicing. Currently, dicing is...

21.05.2015 | nachricht Read more

Diagnostics of Quality of Graphene and Spatial Imaging of Reactivity Centers in Pd/C Catalysts

A convenient procedure to visualize defects on graphene layers by mapping the surface of carbon materials with an appropriate contrast agent was introduced by a team of researchers from Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow) involved in international collaborative project.

Developed imaging procedure has revealed organized patterns of defects on large areas of carbon surfaces. Several types of defects on the carbon surface can be...

20.05.2015 | nachricht Read more

Searching for the perfect laser beam

Current research in the area of laser beam cutting is focused on increasing expertise in forming fiber-guided laser beams for sheet metal cutting and transferring that knowledge to damage-free glass cutting in the display industry as well as water-jet-guided precision cutting of small parts.

As part of the EU’s HALO project (“High power Adaptable Laser beams for materials processing”), scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT...

13.05.2015 | nachricht Read more

Infrared Emitters Enable New Manufacturing Processes

Infrared heat for sandwich structures

The manufacture of the latest sandwich structures, such as those used in modern aircraft and motor vehicles, requires various heating processes. An infrared...

11.05.2015 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: 'Nanochains' could increase battery capacity, cut charging time

How long the battery of your phone or computer lasts depends on how many lithium ions can be stored in the battery's negative electrode material. If the battery runs out of these ions, it can't generate an electrical current to run a device and ultimately fails.

Materials with a higher lithium ion storage capacity are either too heavy or the wrong shape to replace graphite, the electrode material currently used in...

Im Focus: Stevens team closes in on 'holy grail' of room temperature quantum computing chips

Photons interact on chip-based system with unprecedented efficiency

To process information, photons must interact. However, these tiny packets of light want nothing to do with each other, each passing by without altering the...

Im Focus: Happy hour for time-resolved crystallography

Researchers from the Department of Atomically Resolved Dynamics of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg, the University of Hamburg and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) outstation in the city have developed a new method to watch biomolecules at work. This method dramatically simplifies starting enzymatic reactions by mixing a cocktail of small amounts of liquids with protein crystals. Determination of the protein structures at different times after mixing can be assembled into a time-lapse sequence that shows the molecular foundations of biology.

The functions of biomolecules are determined by their motions and structural changes. Yet it is a formidable challenge to understand these dynamic motions.

Im Focus: Modular OLED light strips

At the International Symposium on Automotive Lighting 2019 (ISAL) in Darmstadt from September 23 to 25, 2019, the Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, a provider of research and development services in the field of organic electronics, will present OLED light strips of any length with additional functionalities for the first time at booth no. 37.

Almost everyone is familiar with light strips for interior design. LED strips are available by the metre in DIY stores around the corner and are just as often...

Im Focus: Tomorrow´s coolants of choice

Scientists assess the potential of magnetic-cooling materials

Later during this century, around 2060, a paradigm shift in global energy consumption is expected: we will spend more energy for cooling than for heating....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

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