Process technology is when a product is manufactured from a raw material by using chemical, biological or physical processes.
Process technology can be viewed as the time between the production of a raw material and the manufacture of a product. The number of processes that are involved plays no role here. A good example is the manufacture of various metals from iron ore. Or petroleum, which has to be processed so that various end products can be manufactured using process technology. Process technology uses processes to modify more than just raw materials. This can include recyclable materials for instance. Especially in today's "green environment",process technology is utilized to process renewable raw materials , or bioenergy as it's called. This can involve different grains and other raw materials such as rape seed, from which bioenergy can be produced through various processes.
Process technology is not limited to a single process. It can be classified into five different process technologies, all of which involve their own process. First, there is thermal process technology , which deals with distillation. In contrast to thermal process technology, chemical process technology relies on chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Electrochemical process technology utilizes electrochemical processes such as the synthesis of various chemicals. Process technologies based solely on biological processes focus more on the use of bacteria, fungi or yeast.
Every process technology brings advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the process technology must be selected on a case by case basis. Companies frequently utilize various process technologies to achieve the optimum result.
Hydrolysis uses a chemical process to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrolysis also involves the chemical separation of crystallization water. The opposite of hydrolysis is dehydration synthesis, which as the term implies involves the splitting of hydrogen instead of water.
The application of phosphoric or sulfuric acid as catalysts in hydrolysis causes alcohols to react for instance. The water then separates from the alcohol through the hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis can also be induced by using zinc chloride. Viewed on a large-scale, hydrolysis can also be activated at a specific pressure, which triggers the hydrolysis during the vapor phase. Alcohols frequently react with one another during hydrolysis. This hydrolysis process creates one molecule from two molecules of ethanol alcohol during the vapor phase at a temperature of 260°C. All of this can be triggered through hydrolysis.
### invalid font number 31506 In addition to acetic anhydride, which is produced by hydrolyzing acetic acid, hydrolysis is also used to produce phthalicanhydride from phthalic acid. These processes should be carried out only by trained chemists and physicists. Some processes are extremely complex and can trigger various side effects if carried out improperly. If the human body is exposed to excessive levels of acid during a process, it can result in damage to the respiratory tract.
Hydrolysis and process technology work hand in hand. A wide range of industries rely on hydrolysis for producing a variety of materials, which makes hydrolysis ideally suited for manufacturing processes.
This special field revolves around processes for modifying material properties (milling, cooling), composition (filtration, distillation) and type (oxidation, hydration).
Valuable information is available on a broad range of technologies including material separation, laser processes, measuring techniques and robot engineering in addition to testing methods and coating and materials analysis processes.
On April 26 and 27, 2017, 150 experts from research and industry met in Aachen for the 4th UKP-Workshop: Ultrafast Laser Technology. Once again, the workshop – organized by the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT – focused on the industrial uses of ultrashort laser pulses. However, it was basic researchers that caused a stir. Using relatively simple formulas, they demonstrated how the much-lauded “cold ablation” of picosecond and femtosecond lasers is by no means cold when the parameters and systems chosen are not matching the physical limitations and conditions of beam-material interactions.
Ultrashort laser pulses (USP) have enormous advantages: they can ablate with submicrometer precision, vaporizing the ablated material immediately without melt...17.05.2017 | Read more
Working under water is personnel- and time-intensive. The Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) is therefore working on developing a laser-based, automated process for cutting sheet piling under water, together with the Institute of Materials Science of the Leibniz Universität Hannover.
Sheet piling protects fortified shore areas, or can be used to dry out these areas if repairs are necessary. If the sheet piling must be dismantled, divers...03.05.2017 | Read more
Only twice as thick as a strand of hair, or around 100 µm: that’s how thin the transparent, scratchproof and malleable ceramic layers of the future that are meant to protect portable electronics are. Since March 2017, the methods and process chains for producing this material have been in development at the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT as part of a three-year research project called CeGlaFlex.
Mobile electronics, regardless of whether it is a cellular phone, tablet or blood pressure monitor, rely on the quality of their touch-screen displays. In...25.04.2017 | Read more
Creating large structures with high volume or with the highest-possible resolution: The Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) is carrying out research on diverse processes for additive manufacturing, in order to push past the present limits. At the Hannover Messe 2017, at the pavilion of the State of Lower Saxony (hall 2, stand A08), the LZH is presenting the state of the art.
The sky's the limit: laser deposition welding11.04.2017 | Read more
The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.
The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...08.02.2017 | Read more
The automotive industry is increasingly looking to composite materials as a way of reducing vehicle weight and CO2 emissions. Up to now, however, these...23.01.2017 | Read more
Ultrafast lasers have introduced new possibilities in engraving ultrafine structures, and scientists are now also investigating how to use them to etch microstructures into thin glass. There are possible applications in analytics (lab on a chip) and especially in electronics and the consumer sector, where great interest has been shown.
This new method was born of a surprising phenomenon: irradiating glass in a particular way with an ultrafast laser has the effect of making the glass up to a...25.10.2016 | Read more
The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP now has the technological means of applying electron beams very flexible to 3-D objects through use of its new electron wand of the Swiss company ebeam by COMET.
Electron beams are useful in many different applications. They reliably sterilize seed, can weld small structures precisely and reliable, and cure decorative...23.09.2016 | Read more
So far, the established methods for an efficient and cell-preserving transfection in high-throughput screening lead to unsatisfactory results. Within the scope of a project of the Industrial Joint Research (IFG), the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and its partners succeeded in developing a functional model for a gold nanoparticle-based laser transfection in high-throughput.
This transfection method is characterized by molecules entering the cells through an optically induced process. By attaching the gold nanoparticles to the...21.03.2016 | Read more
Zero plastics to landfill increases the need to mechanical recycling of plastics. This also applies to flame retardant plastics which are increasingly formulated with halogen-free flame retardants. According to EU regulations, plastic waste recycling is to increase in quality, and recycling rates should continue to rise: the EU target for 2020 is 70 percent.
The Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF in Darmstadt/Germany has therefore launched a new research project on the...17.02.2016 | Read more
Biochemists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) have used a standard electron cryo-microscope to achieve surprisingly good images that are on par with those taken by far more sophisticated equipment. They have succeeded in determining the structure of ferritin almost at the atomic level. Their results were published in the journal "PLOS ONE".
Electron cryo-microscopy has become increasingly important in recent years, especially in shedding light on protein structures. The developers of the new...
New insight into the spin behavior in an exotic state of matter puts us closer to next-generation spintronic devices
Aside from the deep understanding of the natural world that quantum physics theory offers, scientists worldwide are working tirelessly to bring forth a...
Kiel physics team observed extremely fast electronic changes in real time in a special material class
In physics, they are currently the subject of intensive research; in electronics, they could enable completely new functions. So-called topological materials...
Solar cells based on perovskite compounds could soon make electricity generation from sunlight even more efficient and cheaper. The laboratory efficiency of these perovskite solar cells already exceeds that of the well-known silicon solar cells. An international team led by Stefan Weber from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz has found microscopic structures in perovskite crystals that can guide the charge transport in the solar cell. Clever alignment of these "electron highways" could make perovskite solar cells even more powerful.
Solar cells convert sunlight into electricity. During this process, the electrons of the material inside the cell absorb the energy of the light....
Empa researchers have succeeded in applying aerogels to microelectronics: Aerogels based on cellulose nanofibers can effectively shield electromagnetic radiation over a wide frequency range – and they are unrivalled in terms of weight.
Electric motors and electronic devices generate electromagnetic fields that sometimes have to be shielded in order not to affect neighboring electronic...
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