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What is process technology?

Process technology is when a product is manufactured from a raw material by using chemical, biological or physical processes.

Process technology can be viewed as the time between the production of a raw material and the manufacture of a product. The number of processes that are involved plays no role here. A good example is the manufacture of various metals from iron ore. Or petroleum, which has to be processed so that various end products can be manufactured using process technology. Process technology uses processes to modify more than just raw materials. This can include recyclable materials for instance. Especially in today's "green environment",process technology is utilized to process renewable raw materials , or bioenergy as it's called. This can involve different grains and other raw materials such as rape seed, from which bioenergy can be produced through various processes.

There is more than one process technology

Process technology is not limited to a single process. It can be classified into five different process technologies, all of which involve their own process. First, there is thermal process technology , which deals with distillation. In contrast to thermal process technology, chemical process technology relies on chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Electrochemical process technology utilizes electrochemical processes such as the synthesis of various chemicals. Process technologies based solely on biological processes focus more on the use of bacteria, fungi or yeast.

Every process technology brings advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the process technology must be selected on a case by case basis. Companies frequently utilize various process technologies to achieve the optimum result.

Hydrolysis in chemicals and industry

Hydrolysis uses a chemical process to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrolysis also involves the chemical separation of crystallization water. The opposite of hydrolysis is dehydration synthesis, which as the term implies involves the splitting of hydrogen instead of water.

How does hydrolysis work?

The application of phosphoric or sulfuric acid as catalysts in hydrolysis causes alcohols to react for instance. The water then separates from the alcohol through the hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis can also be induced by using zinc chloride. Viewed on a large-scale, hydrolysis can also be activated at a specific pressure, which triggers the hydrolysis during the vapor phase. Alcohols frequently react with one another during hydrolysis. This hydrolysis process creates one molecule from two molecules of ethanol alcohol during the vapor phase at a temperature of 260°C. All of this can be triggered through hydrolysis.

What else can be produced through hydrolysis?

### invalid font number 31506 In addition to acetic anhydride, which is produced by hydrolyzing acetic acid, hydrolysis is also used to produce phthalicanhydride from phthalic acid. These processes should be carried out only by trained chemists and physicists. Some processes are extremely complex and can trigger various side effects if carried out improperly. If the human body is exposed to excessive levels of acid during a process, it can result in damage to the respiratory tract.

Hydrolysis and process technology work hand in hand. A wide range of industries rely on hydrolysis for producing a variety of materials, which makes hydrolysis ideally suited for manufacturing processes.

Process Engineering

This special field revolves around processes for modifying material properties (milling, cooling), composition (filtration, distillation) and type (oxidation, hydration).

Valuable information is available on a broad range of technologies including material separation, laser processes, measuring techniques and robot engineering in addition to testing methods and coating and materials analysis processes.

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Diamond watch components

SNSF-funded researchers have developed a new technique for carving materials to create micromechanical systems. In particular, they have created a miniscule watch component out of synthetic single-crystal diamond.

Diamond is very hard and elastic, a very good thermal conductor and highly transparent, which makes it ideal for many mechanical and optical applications. But...

18.06.2018 | nachricht Read more

Coating free-form surfaces on large optical components

The business unit Precision Coatings at Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has special expertise in developing deposition processes for high-precision coating systems on optical components. Now, a coating technology for Deposition of laterally graded optical layers on 2D and in the future also on 3D substrates has been developed. The results will be presented at the 2nd OptecNet Annual Conference in Berlin, June 20-21, 2018.

Light plays an important role in more and more economic sectors and markets – including in data transmission, communication, energy generation, laser...

05.06.2018 | nachricht Read more

Quick and safe laser joining of steel-aluminum mixed connections

For the automotive industry of the future, load-adapted and lightweight components made from steel-aluminum mixed joints are required. Within the LaserLeichter project, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed a laser welding process for the quick and safe joining of three-dimensional structures made of steel and aluminum.

Robust and lightweight steel-aluminum composite components are ideal for reducing vehicle weight and can help reducing pollutant emissions. In order to...

05.06.2018 | nachricht Read more

A new method measures the immune cell response within minutes

T cells fight pathogens and tumors: Researchers from the Universities of Tübingen and Lübeck present a simple and fast method to rapidly assess their function

To fight pathogens or tumors, the body relies on various types of lymphocytes, including T cells, which recognize specific structures (antigenic peptides) on...

30.05.2018 | nachricht Read more

Innovative process for environmentally friendly manure treatment comes onto the market

The BioEcoSIM process for the treatment of liquid manure developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB is being introduced to the market by SUEZ Germany as an operator of large-scale plants. This creates an opportunity for farms to dispose of surplus manure and digestate. Slurry treatment products are phosphate fertilizers, ammonium fertilizers and organic soil improvers. The partners will announce their cooperation for the market launch at IFAT from May 14 – 18 in Munich.

Around 200 million cubic meters of liquid manure from livestock farming end up in fields and meadows in Germany every year. More than 90 percent of the “black...

03.05.2018 | nachricht Read more

No compromises: Combining the benefits of 3D printing and casting

Researchers at Fraunhofer IPA have developed a new process that combines 3D printing and casting. In additive freeform casting (AFFC), first a shell of the part is manufactured using FLM printing, then this shell is filled with a two-component resin. This saves time, increases stability of the part and allows new materials to be printed.

Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, already presents a wide range of advantages for industry. IPA expert Jonas Fischer explains: »You enter the...

23.03.2018 | nachricht Read more

Intelligent wheelchairs, predictive prostheses

Radar technology helps patients with limited mobility

If you use a wheelchair or have a prosthetic leg, small obstacles can become insurmountable barriers. Now, researchers at Fraunhofer IPA have developed a way...

20.12.2017 | nachricht Read more

Jelly with memory – predicting the leveling of com-mercial paints

An innovative measurement and evaluation process developed by Fraunhofer IPA means that for the first time, the properties of any paint can be used to predict its levelling behavior. By using this procedure when developing a paint, the development time can be reduced by 15% on aver-age and EUR 150,000 worth of development costs can be saved.

The waviness of a coated film represents an important criterion in visual assessment of the coat quality. Improper levelling can lead to a wavy surface...

15.12.2017 | nachricht Read more

Fraunhofer researchers develop measuring system for ZF factory in Saarbrücken

Modern and forward-looking manufacturing processes are essential building blocks for a company's economic success and efficiency. Production processes must be optimized continuously and intelligently under the aspects of resource savings, quality, and cost. A new measuring system developed by experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP is expected to increase productivity, significantly reduce material and test scrap, as well as provide support for optimizing production processes in transmission production at ZF Friedrichshafen AG's factory in Saarbrücken / Saarland.

ZF Friedrichshafen AG is a globally leading technology group specializing in drivetrain, chassis as well as active and passive safety technology. In order to...

21.11.2017 | nachricht Read more

New manufacturing process for SiC power devices opens market to more competition

Researchers from North Carolina State University are rolling out a new manufacturing process and chip design for silicon carbide (SiC) power devices, which can be used to more efficiently regulate power in technologies that use electronics. The process - called PRESiCE - was developed with support from the PowerAmerica Institute funded by the Department of Energy to make it easier for companies to enter the SiC marketplace and develop new products.

"PRESiCE will allow more companies to get into the SiC market, because they won't have to initially develop their own design and manufacturing process for...

14.09.2017 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Electron cryo-microscopy: Using inexpensive technology to produce high-resolution images

Biochemists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) have used a standard electron cryo-microscope to achieve surprisingly good images that are on par with those taken by far more sophisticated equipment. They have succeeded in determining the structure of ferritin almost at the atomic level. Their results were published in the journal "PLOS ONE".

Electron cryo-microscopy has become increasingly important in recent years, especially in shedding light on protein structures. The developers of the new...

Im Focus: The spin state story: Observation of the quantum spin liquid state in novel material

New insight into the spin behavior in an exotic state of matter puts us closer to next-generation spintronic devices

Aside from the deep understanding of the natural world that quantum physics theory offers, scientists worldwide are working tirelessly to bring forth a...

Im Focus: Excitation of robust materials

Kiel physics team observed extremely fast electronic changes in real time in a special material class

In physics, they are currently the subject of intensive research; in electronics, they could enable completely new functions. So-called topological materials...

Im Focus: Electrons in the fast lane

Solar cells based on perovskite compounds could soon make electricity generation from sunlight even more efficient and cheaper. The laboratory efficiency of these perovskite solar cells already exceeds that of the well-known silicon solar cells. An international team led by Stefan Weber from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz has found microscopic structures in perovskite crystals that can guide the charge transport in the solar cell. Clever alignment of these "electron highways" could make perovskite solar cells even more powerful.

Solar cells convert sunlight into electricity. During this process, the electrons of the material inside the cell absorb the energy of the light....

Im Focus: The lightest electromagnetic shielding material in the world

Empa researchers have succeeded in applying aerogels to microelectronics: Aerogels based on cellulose nanofibers can effectively shield electromagnetic radiation over a wide frequency range – and they are unrivalled in terms of weight.

Electric motors and electronic devices generate electromagnetic fields that sometimes have to be shielded in order not to affect neighboring electronic...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

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