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What is process technology?

Process technology is when a product is manufactured from a raw material by using chemical, biological or physical processes.

Process technology can be viewed as the time between the production of a raw material and the manufacture of a product. The number of processes that are involved plays no role here. A good example is the manufacture of various metals from iron ore. Or petroleum, which has to be processed so that various end products can be manufactured using process technology. Process technology uses processes to modify more than just raw materials. This can include recyclable materials for instance. Especially in today's "green environment",process technology is utilized to process renewable raw materials , or bioenergy as it's called. This can involve different grains and other raw materials such as rape seed, from which bioenergy can be produced through various processes.

There is more than one process technology

Process technology is not limited to a single process. It can be classified into five different process technologies, all of which involve their own process. First, there is thermal process technology , which deals with distillation. In contrast to thermal process technology, chemical process technology relies on chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Electrochemical process technology utilizes electrochemical processes such as the synthesis of various chemicals. Process technologies based solely on biological processes focus more on the use of bacteria, fungi or yeast.

Every process technology brings advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the process technology must be selected on a case by case basis. Companies frequently utilize various process technologies to achieve the optimum result.

Hydrolysis in chemicals and industry

Hydrolysis uses a chemical process to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrolysis also involves the chemical separation of crystallization water. The opposite of hydrolysis is dehydration synthesis, which as the term implies involves the splitting of hydrogen instead of water.

How does hydrolysis work?

The application of phosphoric or sulfuric acid as catalysts in hydrolysis causes alcohols to react for instance. The water then separates from the alcohol through the hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis can also be induced by using zinc chloride. Viewed on a large-scale, hydrolysis can also be activated at a specific pressure, which triggers the hydrolysis during the vapor phase. Alcohols frequently react with one another during hydrolysis. This hydrolysis process creates one molecule from two molecules of ethanol alcohol during the vapor phase at a temperature of 260°C. All of this can be triggered through hydrolysis.

What else can be produced through hydrolysis?

### invalid font number 31506 In addition to acetic anhydride, which is produced by hydrolyzing acetic acid, hydrolysis is also used to produce phthalicanhydride from phthalic acid. These processes should be carried out only by trained chemists and physicists. Some processes are extremely complex and can trigger various side effects if carried out improperly. If the human body is exposed to excessive levels of acid during a process, it can result in damage to the respiratory tract.

Hydrolysis and process technology work hand in hand. A wide range of industries rely on hydrolysis for producing a variety of materials, which makes hydrolysis ideally suited for manufacturing processes.

Process Engineering

This special field revolves around processes for modifying material properties (milling, cooling), composition (filtration, distillation) and type (oxidation, hydration).

Valuable information is available on a broad range of technologies including material separation, laser processes, measuring techniques and robot engineering in addition to testing methods and coating and materials analysis processes.

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Design treatment of advanced metals producing better sculpting

New process targets improvements for defense, vehicles and health products

Most people may not realize it but they encounter products made with exotic or advanced metals every day.

08.03.2019 | nachricht Read more

Laser Processes for Multi-Functional Composites

Since composites combine the advantages of dissimilar materials, they can be used to exploit great potential in lightweight construction. At JEC World 2019 in Paris in March, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will present a broad range of laser-based technologies for the efficient production and processing of composite materials. Visitors to the joint booth of the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Construction AZL, Hall 5A/D17, will gain insight into joining and cutting processes as well as surface structuring.

Experts from Fraunhofer ILT are researching and developing laser processes for the economical joining, cutting, ablation or drilling of composite materials,...

18.02.2019 | nachricht Read more

Efficient reactor dismantling by laser beam cutting?

Can laser beam cutting underwater be used for efficient reactor dismantling? This question will be investigated by scientists of the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) within the scope of the AZULa project. In a feasibility study, they develop a laser beam cutting process and construct a compact cutting head for use in a radiologically activated and contaminated underwater environment.

This new system is supposed to enable the direct dismantling of nuclear facilities (reactor pressure vessels). Laser beam cutting offers significant advantages...

05.02.2019 | nachricht Read more

Adhesive Process Developed for Shingle Cell Technology

The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE in Freiburg has developed a special adhesive process to interconnect silicon solar cells for the industrial production of shingle modules. The market demand for shingle modules is rising rapidly due to their high efficiency and pleasing aesthetics. The cell stringer at Fraunhofer ISE is unique in Germany. It offers a wide range of possibilities for the prototype production of this highly efficient module.

Due to mechanical stresses, shingle cells cannot be soldered like conventional cells. Now with the adhesive technology, it has first become possible to...

09.01.2019 | nachricht Read more

Seawater turns into freshwater through solar energy: A new low-cost technology

A study conducted at Politecnico di Torino and published by the journal Nature Sustainability promotes an innovative and low-cost technology to turn seawater into drinking water, thanks to the use of solar energy alone

According to FAO estimates, by 2025 nearly 2 billion people may not have enough drinking water to satisfy their daily needs. One of the possible solutions to...

08.01.2019 | nachricht Read more

A water treatment breakthrough, inspired by a sea creature

Inspired by Actinia, a sea organism that ensnares its prey with its tentacles, a team of researchers has developed a method for efficiently treating water.

Inspired by Actinia, a sea organism that ensnares its prey with its tentacles, a team of researchers has developed a method for efficiently treating water.

27.11.2018 | nachricht Read more

Research project AutoAdd: Paving the way for additive manufacturing for the automotive industry

Five companies and two research institutes were involved in one of the most exciting technical issues in production. Coordinated by Daimler AG and within the framework of the BMBF funding initiative “Photonic Process Chains”, these project partners examined the “Integration of Additive Manufacturing Processes in Automobile Series Production – AutoAdd”. They focused on the metallic, additive manufacturing process developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, Germany: Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF), also known as Selective Laser Melting (SLM).

The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) wants to literally bring light into production under the term “Photonic Process Chains”.

22.11.2018 | nachricht Read more

Harder 3D-printed tools – Researchers from Dresden introduce new process for hardmetal industry

Extremely hard tools are required in forming technology, metal-cutting and process engineering. They are conventionally made by powder pressing. Although this achieves a high degree of hardness, it is often necessary to carry out a complex and therefore expensive post-processing.

Additive manufacturing enables complex geometries, but has been limited in terms of hardness and component size so far. Researchers at the Fraunhofer IKTS in...

11.10.2018 | nachricht Read more

Flying High with VCSEL Heating

Additive manufacturing processes are booming, with the rapid growth of the formnext trade fair a clear indication of this. At formnext 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be showing a new process in which the component in the powder bed is heated with laser diodes. As a result, distortion can be reduced, taller parts generated and new materials used.

In just three years, formnext has established itself as the industry meeting place to get the latest on additive manufacturing (AM) processes. With 470...

04.10.2018 | nachricht Read more

New technology for ultra-smooth polymer films

The Fraunhofer FEP has succeeded in developing a new technology for the production of ultra-smooth polymer films as part of the "OptiPerm" project. This project received funding from the European Union and the Saxony State Ministry of Economics, Labor and Transport (grant agreement no. 3000651169). The technology, which was previously demonstrated on samples in A4 format, has now been successfully transferred to a roll-to-roll process with even higher surface quality. These results were presented for the first time at the AIMCAL conference in Munich, Germany in June 2018 by Dr. Steffen Günther.

Smooth surfaces with low defect densities are of great importance for many application areas, be they decoratively coated vehicle bodies, high-gloss and...

28.06.2018 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Electron cryo-microscopy: Using inexpensive technology to produce high-resolution images

Biochemists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) have used a standard electron cryo-microscope to achieve surprisingly good images that are on par with those taken by far more sophisticated equipment. They have succeeded in determining the structure of ferritin almost at the atomic level. Their results were published in the journal "PLOS ONE".

Electron cryo-microscopy has become increasingly important in recent years, especially in shedding light on protein structures. The developers of the new...

Im Focus: The spin state story: Observation of the quantum spin liquid state in novel material

New insight into the spin behavior in an exotic state of matter puts us closer to next-generation spintronic devices

Aside from the deep understanding of the natural world that quantum physics theory offers, scientists worldwide are working tirelessly to bring forth a...

Im Focus: Excitation of robust materials

Kiel physics team observed extremely fast electronic changes in real time in a special material class

In physics, they are currently the subject of intensive research; in electronics, they could enable completely new functions. So-called topological materials...

Im Focus: Electrons in the fast lane

Solar cells based on perovskite compounds could soon make electricity generation from sunlight even more efficient and cheaper. The laboratory efficiency of these perovskite solar cells already exceeds that of the well-known silicon solar cells. An international team led by Stefan Weber from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz has found microscopic structures in perovskite crystals that can guide the charge transport in the solar cell. Clever alignment of these "electron highways" could make perovskite solar cells even more powerful.

Solar cells convert sunlight into electricity. During this process, the electrons of the material inside the cell absorb the energy of the light....

Im Focus: The lightest electromagnetic shielding material in the world

Empa researchers have succeeded in applying aerogels to microelectronics: Aerogels based on cellulose nanofibers can effectively shield electromagnetic radiation over a wide frequency range – and they are unrivalled in terms of weight.

Electric motors and electronic devices generate electromagnetic fields that sometimes have to be shielded in order not to affect neighboring electronic...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

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