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Materials sciences - an interdisciplinary research field

Materials sciences involves the research, development, characterization, manufacture and processing of materials.

Materials sciences- the basis

As an interdisciplinary field, materials sciences encompasseschemistry, physics, mineralogyand many other areas of science. As a result, it is also tied closely to copper, iron and steel.

The transition from natural materials such as stone, wood, ivory or leather to the targeted production of materials such as copper, steel or iron

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Copper, steel and iron were produced as early as the Neolithic, roughly around 4,300 B.C. Copper and iron were produced as far back as the New Stone Age, roughly 4,300 B.C. This was then followed by the transition to the Bronze Age. It wasn't until the Iron Age that apart from iron, steel and copper, aluminum was also produced using the Hall-Héroult process. For a long time, materials sciences was interested almost exclusively in metals such as iron, copper and steel. However, this has changed with the rediscovery of concrete. While the first, mass-produced plastic materials eventually attracted the interest of the broad public, materials sciences continues to carry out research into iron, copper and steel.

The first metals and the ancient times

Copper, steel and iron were the first metals that mankind became familiar with as it evolved. Copper is very easy to process. As a result, copper was already being used 10,000 years ago by the oldest known cultures 10,000. The era of large-scale copper use (between 3,000 and 5,000 B.C.) is referred to as the Copper Age. The devotees of alchemy associate copper with Venus, the symbol of femininity. The first mirrors were even made from copper. The Roman Empire was the largest producer of copper prior to the Industrial Age. Copper remains an extremely popular material.

Steel - stable and dependable

Mankind has acquired long years of practical experience with steel. Steel is a preferred material in engineering because of its durability, excellent corrosion properties and suitability for welding. It is significantly more stable than copper. The European steel registry lists more than 2,300 types of steel. Coal and steel served as the pillars of heavy industry over a long period of time and were thus the foundations of political power. Steel is defined as an iron-carbon alloy with less than 2.06 percent carbon content. Steel, or iron, has a density of 7.85-7.87 g/cm3. Steel melts at a temperature that can be as high as 1,536°C and therefore withstands much higher temperatures than copper.Steel was first produced around 1,000 B.C., much later than copper. In an ecological sense, steel is a sustainable material because it can be continuously reused with minimal quality loss .

Iron - from decoration to general utility

The use of iron was first recorded around 4,000 B.C. in Egypt. It was a solid iron used for decorations and for making spear tips. It was more suitable for these purposes than steel or copper. Smelted iron appeared later in Mesopotamia and Egypt, but it was only intended for ceremonial purposes. Perhaps iron came about as a byproduct of bronze production. After the Hethiter developed a method to produce iron, cultures became increasingly reliant on iron between 1,600 and 1,200 B.C. Iron is thought to be a major element of the earth's core, along with nickel. Iron is produced by reducing iron ore through a chemical reaction with carbon. In contrast to steel or copper, iron is produced in blast furnaces.

Materials Sciences

Materials management deals with the research, development, manufacturing and processing of raw and industrial materials. Key aspects here are biological and medical issues, which play an increasingly important role in this field.

innovations-report offers in-depth articles related to the development and application of materials and the structure and properties of new materials.

Latest News:

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Development of multiple applications based on new magnetic sensors in steel industries - Demams

The target of the project was to develop new magnetic sensors to help measure process variables in steel production, such as velocity or elongation. Uniovi developed high sensitive magnetic sensors for a harsh environment. A non-contact speed-measuring device based on the developed sensor was installed in the continuous annealing line of Aceralia. The system used a magnetic marker and two sensors separated more than 2 cm from the strip, working on a differential principle to impr 18.06.2004 | nachricht Read more

Testing of anchorages in concrete under dynamic loading

An experimental campaign has been conducted for investigating the response of anchorages in concrete, principally to dynamic loads. Normal high performance steel fiber reinforced concretes have been considered and the best test pieces included: plain concrete specimens, cast-in-place and post installed rebars and cast-in-place and post-installed anchors. Innovative, Hopkinson bar based experiments have been produced for strain rates from 10E-6/sec up to 20/sec. The satisfactory performance with resp 18.06.2004 | nachricht Read more

New type of liquid crystal identified; Holds promise of faster, lower priced liquid crystal displays

A new type of liquid crystal - recently discovered by a research team that includes a Kent State University professor - holds the promise of faster liquid crystal displays at a lower price. A new liquid crystal phase – the biaxial nematic liquid crystal - which is likely to revolutionize the liquid crystal display technology, has been discovered by three researchers, Dr. Satyendra Kumar, professor of physics at Kent State; Dr. Bharat R. Acharya, of Platytus Technologies, Madison, WI; and Dr 15.06.2004 | nachricht Read more

Study of the corrosive effects of the water treated in the AÑARBE reservoir purification plant

Last July the Mancomunidad de AGUAS DEL AÑARBE (Association of Municipal Councils supplied with water from the Añarbe reservoir) contracted the CIDETEC Research Centre to carry out a study of the corrosive capacity of the water supply treated at the AÑARBE reservoir purification plant and supplied to households in pipes made of various materials. The Mancomunidad de Aguas del Añarbe is made up of Donostia-San Sebastian City Council and the following Town Councils; Rentería, Pasaia, Hernani, Lasarte, 14.06.2004 | nachricht Read more

Fluid “Stripes” May Be Essential for High-Temperature Superconductivity

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, in collaboration with researchers at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the United Kingdom and Tohoku University in Japan, have discovered evidence supporting a possible mechanism for high-temperature superconductivity that had previously appeared incompatible with certain experimental observations. The finding, which hinges paradoxically on what the scientists observed in a particular material that loses its superconduc 03.06.2004 | nachricht Read more

Students fashion space suits for Mars

As if getting to Mars wasn’t hard enough, astronauts also have to worry about what to wear when they arrive. Their concerns are not fashion pundits but exposure to micrometeor sandstorms, radiation, and a hyper-cold climate. However, three undergraduate students at the University of Alberta - Jennifer Marcy, Ann Shalanski, and Matthew Yarmuch - addressed the problem in Dr. Barry Patchett’s Materials Design 443 class and have published their findings in the Journal of Materials Eng 24.05.2004 | nachricht Read more

Breakthrough polymer for bone repair

A breakthrough in polymer development means that soon there may be a radical new treatment for people with broken bones - a special kind of material that can ’glue’ the bone back together and support it while it heals. The material is designed to break down as the bone regrows leaving only natural tissue. Scientists at CSIRO Molecular Science have developed a biodegradable polymer that can be used in the human body. Not only is it biodegradable and biocompatible, it can be 24.05.2004 | nachricht Read more

Everlasting Fibre-glass Plastic

More durable helmets, vests, ski-sticks and various other fibre-glass plastic products are close to becoming a reality. Provided, of course, the manufacturers apply new technology – the one developed by the Chernogolovka scientists supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises (FASIE). When fibre-glass plastic products were first introduced to the market, the applicability of the material seemed truly unlimited. Late 24.05.2004 | nachricht Read more

Magnetic forces may turn some nanotubes into metals

Research documents first instance of band-gap shrinkage in a semiconductor A new study, published in today’s issue of the journal Science, finds that the basic electrical properties of semiconducting carbon nanotubes change when they are placed inside a magnetic field. The phenomenon is unique among known materials, and it could cause semiconducting nanotubes to transform into metals in even stronger magnetic fields. Scientists found that the "band gap" of semiconductin 21.05.2004 | nachricht Read more

Herstellung von Kohlenstoff-Nanomaterialien Ziel einer Bayreuther Forschungskooperation

Untersuchungen zur Herstellung von Kohlenstoff-Nanomaterialien, um einen massentauglichen Herstellprozess für diese neuartigen Materialien zu entwickeln, sind Ziel einer neuen Bayreuther Forschungskooperation. Untersuchungen zur Herstellung von Kohlenstoff-Nanomaterialien, um einen massentauglichen Herstellprozess für diese neuartigen Materialien zu entwickeln, werden jetzt im Rahmen eines Forschungskooperation zwischen dem Lehrstuhl für Chemische Verfahrenstechnik der Fakultät für Angewan 17.05.2004 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: I-call - When microimplants communicate with each other / Innovation driver digitization - "Smart Health“

Microelectronics as a key technology enables numerous innovations in the field of intelligent medical technology. The Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering IBMT coordinates the BMBF cooperative project "I-call" realizing the first electronic system for ultrasound-based, safe and interference-resistant data transmission between implants in the human body.

When microelectronic systems are used for medical applications, they have to meet high requirements in terms of biocompatibility, reliability, energy...

Im Focus: When predictions of theoretical chemists become reality

Thomas Heine, Professor of Theoretical Chemistry at TU Dresden, together with his team, first predicted a topological 2D polymer in 2019. Only one year later, an international team led by Italian researchers was able to synthesize these materials and experimentally prove their topological properties. For the renowned journal Nature Materials, this was the occasion to invite Thomas Heine to a News and Views article, which was published this week. Under the title "Making 2D Topological Polymers a reality" Prof. Heine describes how his theory became a reality.

Ultrathin materials are extremely interesting as building blocks for next generation nano electronic devices, as it is much easier to make circuits and other...

Im Focus: Rolling into the deep

Scientists took a leukocyte as the blueprint and developed a microrobot that has the size, shape and moving capabilities of a white blood cell. Simulating a blood vessel in a laboratory setting, they succeeded in magnetically navigating the ball-shaped microroller through this dynamic and dense environment. The drug-delivery vehicle withstood the simulated blood flow, pushing the developments in targeted drug delivery a step further: inside the body, there is no better access route to all tissues and organs than the circulatory system. A robot that could actually travel through this finely woven web would revolutionize the minimally-invasive treatment of illnesses.

A team of scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (MPI-IS) in Stuttgart invented a tiny microrobot that resembles a white blood cell...

Im Focus: NASA's Curiosity rover finds clues to chilly ancient Mars buried in rocks

By studying the chemical elements on Mars today -- including carbon and oxygen -- scientists can work backwards to piece together the history of a planet that once had the conditions necessary to support life.

Weaving this story, element by element, from roughly 140 million miles (225 million kilometers) away is a painstaking process. But scientists aren't the type...

Im Focus: Making quantum 'waves' in ultrathin materials

Study co-led by Berkeley Lab reveals how wavelike plasmons could power up a new class of sensing and photochemical technologies at the nanoscale

Wavelike, collective oscillations of electrons known as "plasmons" are very important for determining the optical and electronic properties of metals.

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

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